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Shane R. Evans, Kelly Kopp, Paul G. Johnson, Bryan G. Hopkins, Xin Dai, and Candace Schaible

.E. Snyder, R.L. 2005 The ASCE standardized reference evapotranspiration equation Am. Soc. Civil Eng. Reston, VA Cardenas, B. Migliaccio, K.W. Dukes, M.D. Hahus, I. Kruse, J.K. 2020 Irrigation savings from smart irrigation technologies and

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Michael D. Dukes, Lincoln Zotarelli, and Kelly T. Morgan

sensors on irrigation/fertigation management for vegetable crops in Florida. Potential use of irrigation technologies and future research priorities As outlined in this review, soil moisture sensor-based irrigation of vegetable crops has shown strong

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Kelly T. Morgan, Lincoln Zotarelli, and Michael D. Dukes

Florida is the most important center of processed citrus (Citrus spp.) production in the United States, and all of the crop is irrigated. Irrigation systems include low-volume microirrigation, sprinkler systems, and subsurface irrigation. This review details the relative irrigation efficiencies and factors affecting irrigation uniformity such as design and maintenance. A wide range of soil moisture sensors (e.g., tensiometers, granular matrix, and capacitance) are currently being used for citrus in the state. The use of these sensors and crop evapotranspiration estimation using weather information from the Florida Automated Weather Network in irrigation scheduling are discussed. Current examples of scheduling tools and automated control systems being used on selected fruit crops in Florida are provided. Research data on the effect of irrigation scheduling, soluble fertilizer injection, and soil nutrient movement, particularly nitrate and the use of reclaimed water in Florida, are also reviewed. Concluding this review is a discussion of the potential for adoption of irrigation scheduling and control systems for citrus by Florida growers and future research priorities.

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Alberto Pardossi and Luca Incrocci

population ( FAO, 2002 ). This goal may be achieved through the cultivation of plant species that are more efficient in water use (plant breeding and crop planning), through the utilization of efficient irrigation technology, including appropriate methods for

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Alan W. Hodges, Charles R. Hall, Bridget K. Behe, and Jennifer H. Dennis

adoption of computer technologies for production, marketing, and management. Data on water use and irrigation technology did not indicate any clear pattern with respect to regional differences in relation to water scarcity. Given the reduction over time

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W. J. Lamont


One of the primary missions of the Agricultural Extension Service in each state is to reach agricultural producers with new technology. One of the best educational resources available to accomplish this mission is the on-farm demonstration program. Demonstrations provide a vital link between the researchers and the agricultural producers. The use of the portable pumping and filtering unit in an extension on-farm demonstration provides growers with the opportunity to observe plastic-mulch–drip-irrigation technology and also allows extension specialists to provide valuable training to county extension personnel.

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Michael P. O'Neill and James P. Dobrowolski

Agriculture, in its broadest form, is the greatest consumptive user of water resources in the United States and around the world. Perhaps the greatest challenge facing agricultural producers will be adapting water management to an increasingly variable climate. Adaptation will be extremely difficult, in part because other demands for water (e.g., energy, domestic, industrial, municipal) will continue to increase. Despite considerable improvements in irrigation technology, product development, and other water-saving approaches, agricultural producers will be expected to reduce water consumption and improve or protect water quality of water discharged from agricultural operations. In 2004, the National Institute of Food and Agriculture embarked on an effort to address Agricultural Water Security, ensuring sufficient water of the appropriate quality at the needed time to meet demands for food, fiber, and other agricultural goods and services. This effort identified six broad areas where agricultural research, education, and extension can impact water management to achieve agricultural water security. The six areas are: biotechnology, water reuse, general conservation, irrigation efficiency, water markets and trading, and drought preparedness. We present an overview of the six areas and opportunities for agriculture—and specifically horticultural and specialty crop producers—to adapt to climate change through improved water management.

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R.K. Striegler, G.T. Berg, M. Rothberg, and D. Zoldoske

Using subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is increasing in California vineyards. Reports from growers indicate increased yield, increased water-use efficiency, enhanced soil pest control, and reduced canopy disease pressure for SDI when compared to aboveground drip irrigation (AGDI). However, little information is available in the literature regarding this relatively new irrigation technology for grapes and other perennial crops. A long-term trial was established to evaluate the performance of AGDI and SDI in a mature `Thompson Seedless' raisin vineyard. Portions of a furrow irrigated vineyard block were converted to AGDI and SDI before budburst in 1993. Vine performance, water use, and irrigation system performance data are being collected. As part of this trial, changes in root distribution were examined after harvest in Nov. 1995. Treatments included AGDI, SDI, and furrow irrigation. Root distribution was quantified using the trench profile method. Trenches were opened perpendicular to the row and ≈30 cm from the vine. Roots were mapped along the profile wall using a 1 × 1 m frame, which was divided into one hundred 10 × 10 cm sections. Roots were counted and categorized into four size classes: small (<2 mm), medium (2 to 5 mm), large (5 to 12 mm), and very large (>12 mm). Root distribution differed significantly for AGDI, SDI, and furrow irrigation. The type of irrigation used had the greatest impact on small roots. SDI had more small roots and total roots than AGDI or furrow irrigation. High root densities were observed near the emitter under AGDI and SDI. In addition, both drip irrigation treatments had higher root density near the soil surface than furrow irrigation. Root intrusion was not observed in the SDI treatment.

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Nastaran Basiri Jahromi, Forbes Walker, Amy Fulcher, James Altland, and Wesley C. Wright

Container-grown nursery crops generally require daily irrigation applications and potentially more frequent applications during the hottest part of the growing season. Developing management practices that make more efficient use of irrigation water is important for improving the sustainability of nursery crop production. Biochar, a byproduct of pyrolysis, can potentially increase the water-holding capacity and reduce water and nutrient leaching. In addition, the development of sensor-based irrigation technologies has made monitoring substrate moisture a practical tool for irrigation management in the nursery industry. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of switchgrass biochar on water and nutrient-holding capacity and release in container substrates of Buxus sempervirens L. × Buxus microphylla (‘Green Velvet’ boxwood) and Hydrangea paniculata (Pinky Winky® hardy hydrangea). Containers were filled with pine bark and amended with 0%, 10%, or 25% volume of biochar. Plants were irrigated when the volumetric water content (VWC) reached the water-buffering capacity set point of 0.25 cm3·cm−3. The sensor-based irrigation in combination with the low cost biochar substrate amendment increased substrate water-holding capacity and reduced irrigation requirements for the production of hydrangea, a high water use plant. Biochar application rate influenced irrigation frequency, which likely affected plant biomass for hydrangea, but boxwood dry weight was unaffected by biochar rate. Total irrigation applied was decreased by 32% in 10% biochar treatment without reducing hydrangea dry weight. However, in the 25% biochar treatment, total irrigation applied was reduced by 72%, whereas dry weight decreased by 50%. Biochar application reduced leaching volume and leaching fraction in both plants. Leachate analysis over the course of the 8-week experiment showed that the average mass of phosphate (PO4), potassium (K), and total carbon was greater in the leachate from containers that received 25% biochar compared with those receiving 0% or 10% biochar for both plant species. For hydrangea, mass of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate (NO3) in leachate was not significantly affected by increasing the biochar rate. However, for boxwood, the mass of NO3 and TN was greater in the 25% biochar treatment leachate, whereas the mass of ammonium (NH4) was unaffected. In hydrangea, total nutrients lost from the containers was lower in biochar-amended containers (both 10% and 25% biochar) because of receiving a lower total volume of water. Amendment with biochar also affected concentration of phosphorus (P) and K, with the highest concentration in both leaf tissue and substrate from the 25% biochar application rate.

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Maria C. Morera, Paul F. Monaghan, Michael D. Dukes, Ondine Wells, and Stacia L. Davis

optimization of smart controllers. Hurd et al. (2006) note that homeowner management of irrigation technology and landscape components contribute to system efficiency. Their survey research found household attitudes toward water resources and conservation