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David C. Ferree

The apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars Starkspur Supreme Delicious and Melrose were planted in 1987 on eight apomictic apple rootstock selections made in Germany by Dr. Hanna Schmidt and on M.7. Selections 2 [M. hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. parentage] and 8 [M. sieboldii (Regel) Rehd. parentage] were similar to M.7 in precocity, cumulative yield per tree, and yield efficiency, while the other selections with M. sargenti Rehd. in their parentage were slower to flower and had lower yields and yield efficiencies. Selections 2 and 8 tended to result in larger trees than M.7, while the selections with M. sargenti parentage were generally similar to M.7 in size. Except for trees on M.7 and selection 2, `Starkspur Supreme Delicious' developed more severe symptoms of internal bark necrosis (IBN) than did `Melrose', which normally does not show IBN. However, `Melrose' showed IBN symptoms on selections with M. sargenti parentage. IBN symptoms were positively correlated with leaf Mn concentrations. Influence of rootstocks on other nutrient elements, although significant, were small compared to the effect on Mn. A significant interaction occurred between cultivar and rootstock in their effects upon branch morphology, mostly because fewer flowering spurs and more vegetative spurs were observed on `Melrose' than on `Starkspur Supreme Delicious' when grafted on Selection 2. These apomictic selections offered no advantage over M.7 as rootstocks for apples.

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David C. Ferree

In 1987, `Starkspur Supreme Delicious' and `Melrose' were planted on eight apomitic apple selections made in Germany by Dr. Hanna Schmidt for use as rootstocks and compared to trees on M.7. Selection 2, was the most precocious, followed by trees on M.7, with selections 1 and 7 being less precocious than M.7. Selections 2 and 8 were 25% larger than M.7, while 1, 3, 4, and 7 were similar in size and 5 was 15% smaller than trees on M.7. Selections 2 and 8 had the highest cumulative yields/tree, followed by trees on M.7, with all other selections having lower yields. Internal bark necrosis (IBN) developed on the `Delicious' trees, with the most-severe symptoms on selections 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, with less-severe symptoms on 8 and very little present on trees on M.7. IBN was correlated with leaf Mn levels. In 1995, the highest density of flowering spurs occurred on M.7 and selections 3 and 7, with lower densities in selections 2 and 5. Selection 2 had the highest density of non-fl owering spurs, followed by selection 5, with all others having lower densities similar to trees on M.7.

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Curt R. Rom and R. Andy Allen

`Empire', `Smoothee', `Jonagold', and `Rome Beauty' apple cultivars (CV) on five size-controlling rootstocks, Bud.9, M.9 EMLA, M.26 EMLA, Mark, and Ott.3, were planted in Fayetteville, Ark., in 1990 as a complete block design with six replications. Although interactions for several growth variables were observed in 1990–93, there were no cultivar–rootstock interactions in 1994, 1995, or for cumulative yield. After six seasons' growth, CV did not significantly affect any growth variable. Trees on M.26 and M.9 were the largest, while trees on Mark were significantly smaller for both tree height and TCA; trees on Ott.3 and Bud.9 were intermediate. `Smoothee' had the greatest cumulative yield, while both `Jonagold' and `Rome Beauty' had significantly less; `Empire' yield was intermediate. Trees on Ott.3 and M.26 had larger cumulative yields than other stocks, which were all similar. Trees on Mark had the greatest yield/TCA, while M.9 and M.26 had the least yield/TCA; Ott.3 and B.9 were intermediate. Trees on Mark had very high levels of foliar Mn and exhibited symptoms of Mn-induced internal bark necrosis.

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Xiaoli Ma, Xuefeng Liu, Pingwei Xiang, Shichun Qiu, Xiangcheng Yuan, and Mei Yang

.1.91 Ye, Y.L. Zhang, F.S. Yu, Z.F. Jiang, X.L. 2002 Study on the relationship between leaf content of manganese and internal bark necrosis disease of apple trees J. Fruit Sci. 19 219 222 Younguk, K. Yao, K.S. Chong, C. Chieh-Yu, L