Potatoes with hollow heart or brown center are considered to be of poor quality for both fresh and processing markets. A reliable nondestructive method, which can distinguish affected and normal potatoes, is described here. A Varian 4.7 Tesla, 33-cm horizontal-bore spectroscopy/imaging system was used to obtain nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) images of potatoes. A two-dimensional multi-slice spin-echo imaging technique was used to acquire the cross-sectional images along the longitudinal direction. The echo time was 35 msec and the repetition time was 1.2 sec. A total of 13 slice images were taken for each potato. A one-dimensional projection technique was also performed to evaluate the possibility of using fast-scan method. The brown center showed high intensity in long echo scans due to its longer TL relaxation time. A suberin-like layer resembling the periderm developed on the cavity wall of hollow heart causing a tan or dark brown coloration. This cavity wall also appeared in high intensity on the image. The affected potatoes can easily be sorted out using this nondestructive NMR imaging technique.
P.C. Wang, C.Y. Wang, H.F. Song, and Z.J. Yan
Marlee A. Trandel, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, and Jonathan Schultheis
In triploid (seedless) watermelon [Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. and Nakai)], hollow heart (HH) is a disorder that is expressed as a crack in the center of the fruit that expands to an open cavity. Although HH incidence and severity is part of a screening process for marketable watermelon fruit during cultigen evaluations, HH incidence is highly variable with growing season, even when the best cultural practices are used. Placental tissue firmness is also measured because firmness is related to the marketability of watermelon and may be related to HH. Genetic and environmental factors can influence watermelon HH development, including plant genetics, pollen amount and viability, pollinator activity, and temperature and rainfall fluctuations. We used seedless watermelon cultigen evaluation data collected over 3 years (2012–14) to determine the relationship between germplasm HH and tissue firmness. Transplanted watermelon representing 30 to 44 cultigens per year were grown at the Central Crops Research Station, Clayton, NC, and interplanted with pollenizers ‘Ace’ and/or ‘SP-6’. Harvested fruit were cut length-wise and rated for HH incidence and severity. Flesh firmness was determined by a handheld penetrometer at five locations in the flesh (stem end, top side, ground spot, blossom end, and heart). A common cultigen subset, consisting of 13 cultigens that were grown in all three experiments, was used for analysis of HH severity and incidence, and placental firmness. The presence of HH was negatively correlated with tissue firmness in both the large multiyear cultigen set (R 2 = −0.32; P = 0.0001) and the common cultigen set (R 2 = −0.78; P = 0.0001). Cultigens with lower watermelon tissue firmness values had higher HH incidence and severity. By using multiyear cultigen studies and logistic regression, we were able to detect trends for cultigen susceptibility to this highly variable disorder. Using logistic regression, the probability of HH development was highest for ‘Bold Ruler’, ‘Liberty’, and ‘Affirmed’, and lowest for ‘Maxima’ and ‘Captivation’. The identification of cultigens with a tendency for higher or lower rates of HH will be useful for further research of the causes of HH. Measurements of placental flesh firmness may be useful indicators of susceptible cultigens.
David Douches, Walter Pett, Diedrich Visser, Joseph Coombs, Kelly Zarka, Kimberly Felcher, Gurling Bothma, Johan Brink, Muffy Koch, and Hector Quemada
was graded into four size classes: A = 113 to 285 g, B = <113 g, oversize = >285 g, and pickouts = unmarketable. Tubers >8.3 cm in diameter or >285 g in weight were scored for incidence of external and internal defects, and samples of A-sized tubers
Matthew D. Kleinhenz, Christopher C. Gunter, and Jiwan P. Palta
A direct comparison was made of several commercially available calcium sources applied on two different schedules for their effectiveness in increasing tuber medullary and periderm tissue calcium concentrations in 170–284-g tubers of the cultivar Atlantic grown on a Plainfield sandy loam. Plots (6 x 3 m) were arranged in a CR design in 1993 and a RCBD in 1994 (eight replications). Paired measurements of tuber Ca concentration and internal quality (±hollow heart, ±internal brown spot) were made on individual tubers produced in plots with no additional or additional Ca (168 kg Ca/ha) supplied from either gypsum, liquid calcium nitrate, or NHIB. Two Ca and N application schedules were compared: 1) application at emergence and hilling (non-split), 2) application at emergence, hilling, and 4 and 8 weeks after hilling (split). All plots received 224 kg H/ha balanced with ammonium nitrate. In general, tuber yield and grade were unaffected by treatments in 1993 and 1994, but overall percent A-grade was lowest and percent B-grade highest in 1993 compared with 1994 data. In 1993, all treatments receiving Ca had greater mean tuber medullary and periderm tissue Ca concentration values and a greater percentage of tubers with an elevated Ca concentration compared with non-Ca-supplemented controls. The overall incidence of tuber internal defects was 5% in 1993. All split schedule treatments receiving Ca showed 0% internal defects. In contrast, nearly 8% of the tubers from control plots showed some defect. The medullary tissue Ca concentration of 65% of the tubers having either defect was below the median value of Ca concentration for the entire experiment in 1993. Similar evaluations are underway for the 1994 crop. These data suggest that tuber calcium concentration may be related to the incidence of these internal defects.
George H. Clough
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. `Russet Burbank' response to source of side-dress Ca fertilization applied at 0, 28 and 56 kg·ha-1 Ca on fine sandy loam soil was evaluated. Side-dress Ca source and rate did not affect number or total weight of tubers/hill, average tuber weight, or tuber macronutrient concentrations at mid-season. Tuber B concentration was significantly greater with the 12-0-0-10.5 source as compared to the check. Tuber Fe concentration decreased linearly as 22-0-0-7 rate increased from 0 to 56 kg·ha-1 Ca. No other micronutrient concentration was affected by the applied treatments. Calcium fertilization had no effect on tuber yield, grade distribution, or specific gravity. The predominant internal defect observed was brown center, which was reduced at harvest by side-dress Ca application. Internal quality and french fry color were evaluated after storage for 4 months.
Anton J. Bongers, Lawrence A. Risse, and Vincent G. Bus
Comparisons were made of the major physical and chemical characteristics of seven cultivars of apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) produced and imported into Western Europe from 13 origins. During the 1990-91 marketing season, `Delicious', `Golden Delicious', `Granny Smith', `Elstar', `Jonagold', `Gala', and `Fuji' apples were included in the study. Physical characteristics evaluated were length-to-diameter ratio, shape, external defects, internal defects, water core, bruises, firmness, blush surface, and color. Chemical characteristics evaluated were starch, juice content, soluble solids, acids, and ascorbic acid. Significant differences in some of these quality characteristics were found between the different origins. Apples produced in the United States, particularly `Delicious', had some superior quality characteristics compared to fruit from other origins.
Senay Ozgen, Christopher Gunter, Bjorn Karlsson, and Jiwan Palta
Potato tuber tissue is calcium-deficient. Consequently, increasing Ca concentration is desirable to improve tuber quality. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of supplemental Ca and N fertilization on internal quality of potato. Three products (calcium nitrate, calcium chloride, and gypsum) were used to increase tuber calcium concentration. We tested combinations of both soluble sources of calcium and gypsum. Each treatment had five replications and received same total amount of N, supplied either from ammonium nitrate, liquid N (UAN: 50% urea + 50% ammonium nitrate) and calcium nitrate or combination of these sources (at rate of 225 kg·ha–1). The total Ca was applied at the rate of 168 kg·ha–1. Application of N at emergence and hilling (nonsplit) was compared to split application of N and Ca at hilling, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after hilling. At harvest, ≈100 tubers from each replication were cut in half along longitudinal axis and visually inspected for internal defect in both years. Application of Ca, especially in split schedule and from soluble sources, significantly increased tuber tissue Ca concentration. In 1998, the incidences of hollow heart (HH) and internal brown spots (IBS) were very low. The treatment containing calcium nitrate and calcium chloride combination produced the lowest total defects, whereas application of gypsum was not effective at reducing defects. In 1999, application of all Ca sources including gypsum, reduced HH and IBS. Data from these studies suggest that tuber calcium level is increased by field applications of moderate amount of Ca and tuber quality is impacted by N and Ca application. Furthermore, seasonal climatic variations appear to have dramatic influence on the incidence of internal defects in potato tubers.
Bjorn H. Karlsson and Jiwan P. Palta*
Supplemental calcium application has been shown in our previous work to improve tuber quality and reduce internal defects. We evaluated the response under field conditions of five commerically significant cultivars to a combination of calcium nitrate, calcium chloride and urea (168 kg·ha-1 per season) over three seasons. We were able to determine that the cultivar with the greatest response to supplemental calcium for reduced bruising, `Atlantic' had the lowest levels of tuber tissue calcium. Conversely, cultivars with least response to supplemental calcium, `Dark Red Norland' and `Superior', had the highest levels of tuber tissue calcium. `Snowden' was both intermediate in response to calcium and tuber tissue concentration. Based on data for 3 years, we determined that across cultivars the calcium concentration at which tubers no longer respond is ≈250 ppm and ranges for individual years from 195 to 242 ppm. These results suggest that seasonal variation for individual cultivars may affect the tuber need for calcium for reduced bruising. Although the exact mechanism is not known, we believe that calcium supplemented to bulking tubers may lead to improved cell membrane stability, increased wall structure or enhanced ability of tubers to repair following injury. The results of our study show that supplemental calcium fertilization has the ability to significantly reduce the incidence of tuber bruising for several cultivars.
Christopher C. Gunter and Jiwan P. Palta
Tuber tissue calcium has been linked to several potato quality characteristics, including internal defects and the susceptibility of tubers to decay by soft rotting Erwinia species. We were particularly interested in studying the relationship between supplemental calcium fertilization during the seed tuber production cycle to raise the seed piece calcium concentration and the impact on crop performance the following season. The role of seed tuber tissue calcium level on seed piece decay, growth, development, and performance of the plant was evaluated for cultivars Russet Burbank, Dark Red Norland, Atlantic, Superior, and Snowden. This study was performed over four growing seasons. Seed tubers were raised with varying calcium and the following season, individual tubers (over 3,000 total for 4 years of study) were sampled for calcium and hand planted in the field. They were evaluated for seed piece decay and total tuber yield during the growing season. Seed tubers raised with supplemental calcium resulted in significantly higher mean calcium content than the control tubers. In general, calcium-raised seed tubers tended to produce a more vigorous main sprout and higher tuber yield. We also found that there are significant differences among these cultivars for the characteristics measured. Consistently, in all three years, `Atlantic' responded to test conditions with the lowest decay values, and `Dark Red Norland' consistently showed the highest decay values. This suggests that there may be a genetic component involved in these two responses and these genotypic differences could be exploited to improve cultivated potatoes.
Senay Ozgen, Mustafa Ozgen, and Jiwan P. Palta
Several recent studies, including from our laboratory, have provided evidence that by improving tuber calcium level, we can improve tuber quality such as low internal defects and better storability. The purpose of this study was to be determine the influence of supplemental calcium fertilization on tuber size and tuber number. For this purpose, plantlets of Solanum tuberosum cv. Russet Burbank raised in tissue culture were planted in 20-L pots filled with sandy loam soil with pH of 6.9 and soil calcium level of 350 ppm. All treatments received same total amount of nitrogen (at the rate of 280 kg·ha–1). Five treatments were evaluated: i) nonsplit nitrogen (from ammonium nitrate), ii) split nitrogen (from ammonium nitrate), iii) split nitrogen + gypsum, iv) split nitrogen (from liquid nitrogen) + calcium chloride, and v) split nitrogen (from calcium nitrate). The total calcium was applied at the rate of 168 kg·ha–1. Gypsum application was made at 4 weeks after planting, and other sources of calcium were applied on a split schedule (equally split at 4, 6, 8 weeks after planting). Four months after planting, tubers were harvested and evaluated. In general, all calcium treatments had lower tuber number and greater tuber size compared to the nonsplit nitrogen control. The percentage of total A-grade tubers as well as the percentage yield from A-grade tubers was increased by all calcium applications. These results suggest that calcium content I the soil can influence both potato tuber number and tuber size.