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Hye Ran Kwack and Paula Diane Relf

As the level of urbanization has increased, many people in Korea have begun to recognize the beneficial effects of plants in our immediate surroundings and involvement in horticultural activities. Today, an increasing number of Koreans attempt to improve the quality of life and enhance educational effectiveness through horticultural activities. Kindergarten, elementary, middle, and high schools have initiated garden-based programs. Some universities include courses focusing on horticulture applications to human well-being in their regular graduate programs or in their social education curricula. A few general hospitals, psychiatric hospitals, and rehabilitation centers have begun applying horticulture as a means of treatment. Most of the research articles in Korea on various aspects of human issues in horticulture have been published since the foundation of two academic societies, the Korean Horticultural Therapy Association and the Korean Society for Plants, People, and Environment. These articles are primarily focused on the areas of school gardening, healing gardens, and psychological or physiological effects of horticultural activities. For the future development of human issues in horticulture in Korea, several areas need to be enhanced including: interdisciplinary studies of horticulture and social education; development of different skills, techniques,and scales to validate the effects of horticultural therapy, healing gardens, and gardening as a teaching tool in public education; and an organization empowered to certify horticultural therapists.

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John S. Caldwell and Marilyn S. Prehm

Twenty students from six disciplines in a farming systems course and in a human nutrition course were organized into four interdisciplinary teams during a joint laboratory. Through lectures, videotapes, and actual interviews of farm families, students were trained to work as a team collecting and processing information from informal interviews. Most students (63%) found the joint laboratory “very useful,” but 41% considered the overall work load excessive. Students rated achievement of team-related objectives significantly higher than course-related objectives. The actual interviewing of farm families was rated the most useful training technique. Student contributions to the team were more discipline-based than integrative, with 63% of the students contributing knowledge and skills from their own discipline. Students' gains from the team were more integrative, with 94% gaining from the team process, knowledge from other disciplines, and integration of disciplines, but only 31% gaining new knowledge or skills in their own disciplines.

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Sheri Dorn, Lucy Bradley, Debbie Hamrick, Julie Weisenhorn, Pam Bennett, Jill Callabro, Bridget Behe, Ellen Bauske, and Natalie Bumgarner

The National Initiative for Consumer Horticulture (NICH) is a diverse consortium of leaders who provide a unified voice for promoting the benefits and value of consumer horticulture (CH). NICH endeavors to unite national research efforts with the goals of the diverse stakeholders in the industry, the public sector, and the gardening public in an effort to advance knowledge and increase benefits and application of horticulture for cultivating a healthy world through landscapes, gardens, and plants, and an improved quality of life. Benefits of CH are broadly applicable, whether economic, environmental, or community- and health-related. A benefits approach to marketing sets the stage for unprecedented collaboration, such as that demonstrated by NICH. NICH members have developed three broad goals: recognizing CH as a driver of the agricultural economy; highlighting that CH restores, protects, and conserves natural resources through research and education; and cultivating healthy, connected, and engaged communities through CH. Three NICH committees (Economic, Environmental, and Community and Health Benefits) have focused their efforts on NICH goals for the past 10 months. The three committee chairs, representing ≈30 committee members, presented the results of their efforts and future directions for their committees. The Economic and Environmental committees have proceeded with campaigns to better market CH by promoting the benefits of plants and to increase environmental benefits by changing consumer behavior. After reviewing current research, the Community and Health Benefits Committee suggested that a gap exists in research related to specific benefits of CH and personal gardening (as opposed to benefits accrued by enjoying forests, horticulture therapy, indoor atriums, community gardens, parks, and other public places). The committee suggested that overcoming this gap requires strategic collaboration of skill and expertise from a more diverse group of industry representatives, specialists, and scientists. This approach has tremendous potential to affect the CH marketplace, especially when drawing multiple sources of value from the products and experiences.

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Karina Zambreno, Emily Hoover, Neil Anderson, and Jeffrey H. Gillman

This research has been supported by a grant from the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of Writing at the University of Minnesota and in part by the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station.

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Elizabeth J. Phibbs and Diane Relf

Results of research on youth gardening programs indicate a variety of benefits; however, most studies to date have encountered difficulties in separating treatment effect from confounding variables. A survey of those recently involved in this type of research was conducted to identify common problems and generate suggestions for improving future research efforts. Problems reported as most frequently encountered include difficulty with timing and logistics, lack of funding, and finding and keeping sufficient numbers of participants. Suggestions for obtaining stronger results include: allowing plenty of time for planning, establishing good communication with collaborators, choosing topics relevant to funding agencies and policy makers, and creating interdisciplinary studies that are longitudinal or large-scale collaborative efforts.

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Marihelen Kamp-Glass

If we want our students to engage in complex intellectual tasks to interrogate the insights of different disciplines, then let's join them in the task, modeling it and sharing the difficulties and richness of its possibilities. Interdisciplinary study is not rejection of the disciplines. It is firmly rooted in them, but offers a corrective to the dominance of disciplinary ways of knowing and speculation. We need the depth and focus of disciplinary ways of knowing, but we also need interdisciplinarity to broaden the context and establish links to other ways of constructing knowledge. It is this dialogue between analysis and synthesis that provides the creative tension from which we will all benefit in a world in which crossing intellectual boundaries is increasingly the norm.

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Natalie Bumgarner, Sheri Dorn, Esther McGinnis, Pam Bennett, Ellen Bauske, Sarada Krishnan, and Lucy Bradley

Illuminating the many beneficial roles of plants in human lives, diets, and environments requires interdisciplinary study in a variety of scientific fields. A large body of research addresses human–plant–nature interactions and includes

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Dafna Langgut

79 Liran, N. 2013 The etrog in the Jewish culture: Interdisciplinary study of the ritual object throughout the ages. University Haifa, Haifa, PhD Diss. in Hebrew, with English Abstr Liran-Frisch, N. 2016 Etrog of the heart: Essay on the four species