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Jose G. Franco, Stephen R. King, Joseph G. Masabni and Astrid Volder

al., 2011 ). Intercropping is a potentially effective cultural control strategy for weeds in organic production systems. Intercropping is the practice of growing two or more crops within the same area such that there is biological and agronomic

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Gilbert Miller and Jeremy Greene

Intercropping, the agricultural practice of cultivating two or more crops in the same space at the same time, can make more efficient use of arable land and increase per-hectare profitability for growers ( Kahn, 2010 ; Lithourgidis et al., 2011

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Patrick Chesney, Linda Wessel-Beaver and Donald N. Maynard

Most cultivars of tropical pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) are large, trailing plants. New semi-bush (SB) genotypes need to be tested against traditional long vine (LV) types. Both types of pumpkin have large amounts of interplant space during the early stages of growth that might allow for the planting of an intercrop. To test this hypothesis, as well as the performance of tropical pumpkins of varying growth habit, double rows of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) or cowpeas [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] were intercropped between rows of SB or traditional LV tropical pumpkin in Spring and Fall 1993 in Lajas and Isabela, Puerto Rico. In general, interactions between intercrop treatment and pumpkin genotype were not significant. At its maximum percentage cover (MC) the LV genotype covered, or nearly covered, the entire plot while the SB genotype covered 50% of the plot or less. The SB pumpkin was harvested 5 to 27 days earlier than the LV type. Yield was two to 12 times greater, and average fruit size three to six times greater in the latter. Planting of an intercrop did not reduce pumpkin yield. Green-shelled yields of intercropped legumes averaged ≈700 kg·ha-1. Genotype of the pumpkin maincrop did not affect legume green-shelled yields in Lajas. In Isabela, legume green-shelled yields were 50% higher in SB than in LV pumpkin plots. Legume dry grain yields were greatly reduced in LV compared to SB plots. Intercropping of tropical pumpkin with a short season legume that can be harvested green-shelled is an efficient intercropping system that offers additional yield from the legume without sacrificing yield from the pumpkin maincrop. Both SB and LV pumpkins can be used in an intercrop system, but pumpkin yields were much greater with the LV genotype.

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Brian A. Kahn

Intercropping—the growing of two or more crops simultaneously on the same land—makes efficient use of limited arable land. However, it can complicate chemical pest control as a result of residues and label restrictions, and it is a labor

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R.M. Coolman and G.D. Hoyt

Plant interactions are both competitive and cooperative. Farmers use intercropping to the mutual advantage of both main and secondary crops in a multiple-crop-production system. A vegetable crop has a competitive advantage over a younger secondary cover crop interseeded before vegetable maturity. Non-legume intercropped cover crops can use soil N, while a legume intercrop can increase N in agricultural systems by biological N fixation. Intercropping also may be more efficient than monocropping in exploiting limited resources. Relay-planting main crop and intercrop components so that resource demands (nutrients, water, sunlight, etc.) occur during different periods of the growing season can be an effective means of minimizing interspecific competition. Intercropping systems often exhibit less crop damage associated with insect and plant pathogen attacks, and they provide weed control.

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Bielinski M. Santos, Camille E. Esmel, Silvia Slamova and Elizabeth A. Golden

The double-cropping and intercropping of vegetables has been increasingly investigated in recent years because of the enhanced interest in sustainable practices. Under double-cropping, a second crop is planted in the same production area previously

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E. G. Rhoden, P. Jere and P. K. Biswas

Intercropping increases land use efficiency and provide prolonged yields between compatible crops. A study was conducted to evaluate the yield advantage of intercropping southernpeas (Vigna unguiculata) with corn (Zea mays) in addition to determining the yield advantage of corn, `Yellow Trucker', and two southernpeas cultivars; `Mississippi Silver' and `Pinkeye Purolehull', in an intercrop. Cropping method significantly affected the yield of corn but not southernpeas. Cropping method also influenced leaf area, dry matter and plant height of both southernpeas cultivars. Corn had higher yields in alternate-single row (45×30 cm) with southernpeas intercrop than within (90×15 cm) or alternate row (90×15). Competition for light and nutrients may have accounted for the reduction in dry matter and leaf area of southernpeas in intercrop. The average yield advantage, as measured by the land equivalent ratio, ranged between 1.39 and 1.70. When area time equivalent ratio was used to measure the yield advantage, the range was 1.2 to 1.45. `Pinkeye Purplehull' is more compatible with corn in intercropping than `Mississippi Silver'.

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Ana Regia Alves de Araújo Hendges, Jose Wagner da Silva Melo, Marcelo de Almeida Guimaraes and Janiquelle da Silva Rabelo

levels ( ANVISA, 2011 ). Chemical control has, therefore, become problematic, making it necessary to search for new management strategies for the aphid populations. One alternative to the use of agrochemicals is control by intercropping. In intercrop

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Michael H. Hagemann, Malte G. Roemer, Julian Kofler, Martin Hegele and Jens N. Wünsche

. Despite extremely low orchard productivity of ≈1 t·ha −1 (Yên Châu, 2008, Statistical Data of Yên Châu District, Statistical Department, unpublished data), mango trees are often planted either in monoculture or in intercropping systems with mainly maize

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M. Mergo, E. G. Rhoden and M. Burns

Intercropping is a management system that maximizes production per unit area of land. Intercropping has to be carried out with crops that are compatible in order to ensure increased productivity. An intercropping study was conducted to determine a suitable planting pattern for corn (Zea mays), an overstory crop, and sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas), an under-story crop. Five relative planting dates were established for each component crop (3 week; before, 3WB; 2 weeks before, 2WB; simultaneous, SIM; 2 weeks after, 2WA; and 3 weeks after, 3WA planting the other crop). Monocrop of each component was also planted. The marketable yields of sweetpotato were reduced by 48, 57, 75, 76 and 74% when sweetpotato was intercropped with corn and planted 3WB, 2WB, SIM, 2WA and 3WA corn, respectively. Corn grain yields were reduced 28, 28, 26, 57, and 66% when intercropped with sweetpotato beginning 3WB, 2WB, SIM, 2WA and 3WA sweetpotato, respectively. Although yields of individual component crop were reduced in intercrop, there was no significant difference in land utilization. Land equivalent ratio, area time equivalent ratio, and competition ratio were not significantly affected by planting date. Intercropping corn and sweetpotato was compatible when both crops were simultaneously planted.