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Richard K. Volz, F. Roger Harker, and Sandy Lang

Puncture force was measured in `Gala'apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit from 16 to 175 days after full bloom over 2 years using a range of circular flat-tipped probes (1 to 11 mm diameter) to test the firmness of each fruit. The area-dependent (Ka) and perimeter-dependent (Kp) coefficients of puncture force were determined and were used to calculate the indicative puncture force approximating a standard 11.1-mm-diameter Effegi/Magness-Taylor probe for even the smallest fruit. Ka declined exponentially throughout fruit development with much greater changes occurring closer to bloom. In contrast, maximum Kp occurred at 107 to 119 days after full bloom before declining progressively. Estimated firmness (using a 11.1-mm-diameter probe) declined constantly from 16 days after full bloom. Ka was associated with developmental changes in cortical tissue intercellular air space, cell volume and cell packing density although relationships changed throughout fruit growth. However seasonal change in Kp was not associated with any obvious anatomical change in the cortex.

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Robert K. Showalter

Serious, postharvest decay losses occurred in tomatoes when water in which they were submerged was cooler than the fruit. Tomatoes have extensive intercellular air spaces, a heavily cutinized epidermis, and no stomatal openings. When tomatoes with unbroken skins were submerged in packinghouse dump tank water of lower temperatures, the internal air contracted and water plus decay organisms were drawn into the fruits through the stem scar. Heating dump tank water has been successful in limiting this decay problem.

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Jennifer A. Ehrenberger* and Adelheid R. Kuehnle

A hybridization strategy for certain coloration could be developed based on accurate histological information of parental material together with the knowledge of heritability of color and color intensity. A sample of 12 Anthurium species and hybrids were histologically examined for pigmentation in spathes using a new method employing vacuum infiltration of spathe tissue with polyethylene glycol (PEG) prior to cross-sectioning. PEG infiltration displaces intercellular air spaces between cells. This method greatly improved the clarity of the cross sections and consequently improved observations of spatial localization of anthocyanins and chloroplasts. This infiltration method accurately identified the spatial localization of pigments for future breeding reference, notably among Anthurium species.

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B.R. Bondada, R Romero-Aranda, J. Syvertsen, and L. Albrigo

Foliar applications of urea-nitrogen are widely used to alleviate N deficiencies in citrus; however, improper applications can cause serious foliar burn and loss of active green leaf area. Light (LM), transmission (TEM), and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy were used to characterize anatomical and ultrastructural details of foliar burn in citrus. LM examination of the burned leaf area showed collapsed adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells and plasmolysis of mesophyll cells that created large intercellular spaces. SEM showed wrinkling of both the adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells. TEM revealed cytoplasmic vacuolation, disruption of cellular membrane, degradation of grana, and appearance of large plastoglobuli, implying loss of physiological activity. In contrast, control leaves had turgid adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells and compact mesophyll cells with few intercellular air spaces.

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Imed Dami and Harrison Hughes

Grape cv. Valiant was micropropagated in an MS medium with and without 2% (W/V) of polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 8000). Leaf anatomy of control (in vitro, no PEG), treated (in vitro, PEG), field grown and greenhouse grown plants were compared under light microscopy. Cell size, palisade layer formation, relative intercellular air space and apparent chloroplast number varied between the leaves of control and PEG treated (high osmoticum) plantlets. These leaf characteristics in the high osmoticum medium appeared more similar to the leaves of the greenhouse and field grown plants. Leaves from control plantlets contained cells of larger size, lacked normal palisade layer formation, greater intercellular pore spaces and fewer chloroplasts. Leaves of PEG treated plantlets had smaller cells, a more defined palisade layer, reduced intercellular pore spaces and greater number of chloroplasts. Leaves of greenhouse and field grown plants had small cells, a well-defined palisade layer, least intercellular pore space and greatest number of chloroplasts. These results demonstrate that a high osmoticum medium may be used to induce more normal leaf development.

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Sissel Torre, Tove Fjeld, Hans Ragnar Gislerød, and Roar Moe

Single node cuttings with one mature leaf were taken from Rosa ×hybrida `Baroness' and rooted in water culture. The plants were subjected to either 90% (high) or 70% (moderate) relative humidity (RH) in climate chambers. Single stem roses with intact roots were transferred to 40% (low) RH to investigate the stomatal response to water stress. Moderate RH plants showed decreasing leaf conductance from day 1 to day 3 during both light and dark phases, in contrast to high RH roses, which showed almost similar leaf conductances during the 3 days. Leaf samples were studied with a light microscope (LM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to quantify morphological and structural changes. Epidermal imprints showed a significantly higher number of stomata and longer stomata, as well as a wider stomatal apertures on roses grown at high RH. The high RH leaves showed a reduced density of vascular tissue and thinner leaves when compared to moderate RH leaves. Enlarged intercellular air-space (ICA) was found due to a reduced number of spongy and palisade mesophyll cells. No obvious difference in shape, size, undulation or the structure of the epicuticular wax was observed in SEM between high and moderate RH grown leaves. In conclusion, roses subjected to high RH showed differences in leaf anatomy, stomatal morphology and stomatal function, which may explain the loss of water control of these plants. Stomatal ontogenesis should occur at RH conditions below 85% to secure roses with a high postharvest quality potential.

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Soo-Hyung Kim and Bert Cregg

biochemical model of C 3 photosynthesis ( Farquhar et al., 1980 ) to estimate the conductance of CO 2 from the intercellular air spaces to the site of carboxylation inside the chloroplast. This method has been found to compare well with other methods ( Bunce

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Yasutaka Kano, Youichi Ikeshita, Yuri Kanamori, and Nobuyuki Fukuoka

Kano, Y. 1993 Relationship between the occurrence of hollowing in watermelon and the size and the number of fruit cells and intercellular air spaces J. Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci. 62 103 112 Kano, Y. 2002 Relationship

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Seong Min Woo and Hazel Y. Wetzstein

-section were composed of seven to nine cell layers, and prominent intercellular air spaces were observed in the spongy layer. Stomata were confined to the abaxial epidermis surface. Leaf surfaces had generally flat contours with epidermal cells and raised minor

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Marlee A. Trandel, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, and Jonathan Schultheis

Cooperative Extension. < > Kano, Y. 1993 Relationship between the occurrence of hollowing in watermelon and the size and the number of fruit cells and intercellular air space J. Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci. 62 1 1926