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J.A Flore, E. Hanson, J. Johnson, M. Whalon, and G. Bird

Objectives of this experiment are: 1) to compare crop quality and yield, and insect disease populations between orchard systems that employ integrated crop management technologies with conventional systems, and 2) to monitor soil and fruit chemical residues to determine the effectiveness of these systems. In 1990, 6 one-acre plots were established at the Southwest Michigan Research and Extension center, with 1/3 acre of peaches planted in the center of each plot. Plots were separated by at least 200 m. Conventional culture (clean cultivation, ground application of fertilizer, scheduled pesticide application, dormant pruning) and Integrated Crop Management plots (use of fertigation or manure for N, pesticide application based on trap counts, endophytic rye, pheromone disruption of oriental fruit moth and mulch for weed control) were established. In phase I of the project (1990), insects and diseases, as well as crop growth (Reproductive and Vegetative) were monitored. In phase II (1991), soil and fruit pesticide residues will be determined and compared for the three different strategies. This paper is intended to stimulate discussion and only limited data will be presented for the 1st year results.

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Massimo Tagliavini and Bruno Marangoni

Most deciduous fruit crops in Italy are grown in the north and especially in the eastern part of the Po River Valley (mainly in the Emilia Romagna and Veneto regions) and in the Adige River Valley (South Tyrol and Trento provinces). Soils in the wide Po River Valley, where pear (Pyrus communis), peach and nectarine (Prunus persica), kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa), plum (Prunus domestica and P. insititia), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), cherry (Prunus avium), and apple (Malus domestica) are grown, are alluvial, generally fertile, fine textured, alkaline, often calcareous and well enriched with Ca. Apple plantings are concentrated in the Adige Valley and located on a variety of soil types, including sandy loam, loamy sand soils or sandy clay, sometimes calcareous. Integrated fruit production is gaining importance and represents more than 80% of apple production in South Tyrol and about 60% of peach and nectarine production in Emilia Romagna. Under these conditions, the main objectives of mineral nutrition are to reconcile production and environmental concerns (minimize nutrient leaching, soil pollution, volatile emissions). In particular, fertilization aims to improve external and internal fruit quality and storage ability, reduce production costs, maintain soil fertility, avoid nutrient deficiency and excess and control tree vigor. Nitrogen applications have strongly decreased in recent years and there is a need to improve the efficiency of N fertilizers while avoiding deficiencies. Research is focussing on application technology, timing of N uptake, internal cycling of N and methods for assessing the need for N application (e.g., using estimates of native soil N availability). Early diagnosis of bitter pit is recommended for guiding applications of Ca sprays. Iron deficiency and chlorosis is a major problem in pear, peach and kiwifruit grown in alkaline and calcareous soils and Fe chelates are usually applied annually to the soil or to the canopy. Current research is focused on agronomic means for controlling the problem and on developing rootstocks tolerant to Fe deficiency.

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Gregory Peck, Ian M. Merwin, Emily Vollmer, and Kristine Averill

Apple growers in New York lack the tools to produce high quality fruit for the organic or IFP marketplace. We are systematically evaluating OFP and IFP systems for pest control efficacy, fruit and soil quality, environmental impacts, and economic sustainability, in an orchard of disease-resistant `Liberty' on M.9 rootstock. The OFP system follows USDA-NOP standards and the IFP system follows newly developed NY IFP standards. In the first year of this study (2004), both systems were equally productive, but variable costs for OFP were twice that of IFP, due to 11 kaolin applications, while returns were comparable. In 2005, OFP yields were 25% greater than IFP yields, but 30% of OFP fruit was unmarketable largely due to insect damage. This loss, plus small fruit size, resulted in OFP returns of $5432 per hectare, about half the IFP returns. With only four kaolin applications in 2005, OFP costs were $2437 per hectare, marginally greater than the $2083 per hectare costs for IFP apples. Harvest maturity indices were similar and peak fruit quality was attained in both systems in early Oct. In 2004, consumer panelists could not detect differences between fruit from the two systems, but in 2005 panelists rated OFP apples as sweeter, more tart, better flavored, and more acceptable overall. Antioxidant activity, total phenolics concentrations, and mineral content of apples were similar between systems in both years. Values for all essential plant nutrients, organic matter content, pH, and CEC were also equivalent in each system both years. Cultivation was likely responsible for lowering the bulk density, soil strength, and aggregate stability of the OFP top soil in 2005. While OFP remains very challenging, IFP can be implemented successfully in New York orchards.

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Rufus Isaacs, Vicki Morrone, and Dariusz Gajek

The goal of this study was to evaluate potential alternatives to endosulfan for control of the blueberry bud mite (Acalitus vaccinii), because the availability of this acaricide may be restricted in the future. Laboratory evaluations of potential acaricides showed that endosulfan and a combination of abamectin plus oil provided 97% and 100% control, respectively. Pyridaben and fenpropathrin were less effective, reducing mite survival by 49% and 57%, respectively. Further laboratory evaluation of the abamectin plus oil treatment showed that each component applied alone provided a high level of control of blueberry bud mite. Field trials in Michigan on a mature highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) planting were conducted to compare control of this pest by postharvest applications of endosulfan, delayed-dormant application of oil, or a combination of both treatments. The oil provided a 40% reduction in mite scores, while endosulfan was more effective (48%) and similar to the combination of endosulfan and oil (52%). A separate field trial using a multifan/nozzle sprayer that applied the pesticide in 233.8 L·ha-1 (25 gal/acre) of water suggested that the level of control from one application of endosulfan was not as effective as two applications. Results are discussed in relation to developing future bud mite control programs in blueberry and the need to address gaps in our understanding of the biology of blueberry bud mite. Endosulfan (Thiodan 50 WP), Endosulfan (Thiodan 3 EC), Abamectin (AgriMek 0.15 EC), Fenpropathrin (Danitol 2.4 EC), Pyridaben (Pyramite 60 WP).

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James W. Olmstead, Gregory A. Lang, and Gary G. Grove

Most sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown commercially in the Pacific Northwestern states of the United States are susceptible to powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Podosphaera clandestina (Wall.:Fr.) Lev. The disease is prevalent in the irrigated arid region east of the Cascade Mountains in Washington State. Little is known about genetic resistance to powdery mildew in sweet cherry, although a selection (PMR-1) was identified at Washington State Univ.'s Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center that exhibits apparent foliar immunity to the disease. The objective of this research was to determine the inheritance of powdery mildew resistance from PMR-1. Reciprocal crosses were made between PMR-1 and three high-quality, widely-grown susceptible cultivars (`Bing', `Rainier', and `Van'). Resultant progenies were screened for reaction to powdery mildew colonization using a laboratory leaf disk assay. Assay results were verified by natural spread of powdery mildew among the progeny in a greenhouse and later by placing them among infected trees in a cherry orchard. Segregation within the progenies for powdery mildew reaction fit a 1 resistant: 1 susceptible segregation ratio (P ≤ 0.05), indicating that resistance to powdery mildew derived from PMR-1 was conferred by a single gene.

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John Cline, Gerry Neilsen, Eugene Hogue, Shawn Kuchta, and Denise Neilsen

.J. Neilsen, G.H. 1987 Orchard floor vegetation management Hort. Rev. 9 377 430 Hogue, E.J. Neilsen, G.H. Forge, T. Neilsen, D. 2003 Use of a spray-on-mulch of waste paper fiber in integrated fruit production Proc. 2nd Can. Organic Residuals Recycling Conf 883

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Kathleen Delate, Andrea McKern, Robert Turnbull, James T.S. Walker, Richard Volz, Allan White, Vincent Bus, Dave Rogers, Lyn Cole, Natalie How, Sarah Guernsey, and Jason Johnston

reported significant bronze beetle damage in their organic blocks. A native insect found in forest trees, the bronze beetle had primarily been a minor pest on apples, managed by insecticides commonly used in integrated fruit production (IFP) programs. After

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Tom Deckers and Hilde Schoofs

Nutrition is an important orchard management factor. In integrated fruit production (IFP) there is a tendency to reduce the impact of some elements like nitrogen from soil applications and to replace them by leaf applications. For some elements like magnesium or manganese a leaf application can be a very efficient way to prevent deficiency symptoms on the leaves; for other elements these effects can not be proved sufficiently. In this paper we discuss some standard nutritional practices of Belgian fruit growing; for some of them there is sufficient scientific support for others there is not. A general overview is given in which the different foliar applications are positioned in function of the phenological evolution of fruit trees.

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S. Sansavini

The European Union's fruit industry is currently beset by marked surplus output, formidable market competition from non-EU countries, and strong consumer demanded for enhanced quality. This latter issue is particularly complex because it involves not only the fruit's genetic, esthetic, sensory, and taste characters, but also pre- and postharvest produce management practices and their impact on the environment and human health. The main thrust of the response to the challenges posed by these quality factors is integrated fruit production (IFP), a policy sustainable crop growing that the EU can support financially. Research has been directly involved in IFP and the directions in which it is moving. It has developed the first EU guidelines (OILB-ISHS), which initially covered pome crops and were later extended to cover all fruits, and the field, harvest, handling, storage, and market monitoring and quality-control techniques needed to implement them. These methods include biological and integrated disease and pest control, the introduction of plant material resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses, the development of field management practices to enhance plant defense and cropping-control mechanisms, the use of energy-saving irrigation and nutrient input techniques, the modeling of plantations, training systems and tree-bearing control, and advanced fruit storage, packaging, and transport methods. The updated advances in these areas are reported and discussed.

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Gregory M. Peck, Ian A. Merwin, Christopher B. Watkins, Kathryn W. Chapman, and Olga I. Padilla-Zakour

. 1997 Integrated fruit production in Europe: Research and strategies for a sustainable industry Scientia Hort. 68 25 36 Schupp, J.R. Fallahi, E. Chun, I. 2002 Effect of particle film on fruit sunburn