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Huangjun Lu, Alan L. Wright, and David Sui

their performance in fields under attack from insect pests and to understand if any of the cultivars have resistance that can be incorporated into IPM tactics for insect control. Objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate population dynamics of BCB

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Ronald C. Stephenson, Christine E.H. Coker, Benedict C. Posadas, Gary R. Bachman, Richard L. Harkess, John J. Adamczyk, and Patricia R. Knight

( Posadas, 2018a ). Tomatoes were produced on 40.4% of vegetable farms, with production constituting ≈0.9% of total vegetable production area ( USDA, 2017 ). Insect pests have a significant effect on crop yields and quality. In crops with extensive pesticide

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Elisha Otieno Gogo, Mwanarusi Saidi, Jacob Mugwa Ochieng, Thibaud Martin, Vance Baird, and Mathieu Ngouajio

. Among the major challenges cited for French bean production are unfavorable environmental conditions and insect pest problems ( Monda et al., 2003 ) with the latter further confirmed by a bean value chain analysis study conducted in Kenya by The

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Ockert P.J. Stander, Jade North, Jan M. Van Niekerk, Tertia Van Wyk, Claire Love, and Martin J. Gilbert

evaluated the effects of NPN on foliar spray deposition, leaf mineral nutrient concentration, fruit yield and quality, and rind surface damage of ‘Nadorcott’ mandarin fruit. Monitoring of two important insect pest species was performed during the experiment

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W. Randy Martin Jr.

Recent advances in the development of large-scale, in vitro rearing techniques and formulation technology have prompted the commercialization of entomopathogenic nematodes. The potential for these nematodes as biological control agents is very promising, with proven efficacy against a wide variety of soil-inhabiting insects including root weevils, white grubs, mole crickets, and fungus gnats. Entomopathogenic nematodes are currently marketed in many countries for a variety of horticultural crops, including turfgrass, vegetables, berries, ornamentals, and citrus. Specific examples of successful application of nematodes for the control of insect pests during stand establishment will be discussed.

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Raymond A. Cloyd

Armored Scale Insect Pests of Trees and Shrubs. D.R. Miller and J.A. Davidson. 2005. Comstock Publishing Associates (A Division Cornell University Press), Sage House, 512 East State Street, Ithaca, New York 14850. 442 pages. Over 100 figures

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S. Overney, V.Q. Le, S. Visal, and S. Yelle

Bioengineering economically important plants with proteinase inhibitors (PIs) is a promising method for the control of insect pests. In the case of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say), the major insect pest of potato fields, 80% of the digestive proteases are of cysteine type. We showed that 60% of these cysteine proteases are inhibited by oryzacystatins (OCs). The use of these cysteine protease inhibitor genes therefore appears of great interest for the production of Coleoptera-resistant transgenic plants of potato. Complementary studies of biochemical in vitro assays showed an apparent absence of direct interference between OCs and potato proteases. The high regeneration efficiency of the genetically transformed plants with OC gene and the “normal” phenotypical growth of the resulting transgenic potato plants suggested that these foreign genes do not interact with important physiological processes in the potato plants. In vivo assays of PIs against CPB at various developmental stages suggest the significant potential of OCs as an effective way to control CPB populations and crop damage.

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J.S. Caldwell, J.P. Amirault, and A.H. Christian

Eighty-two vegetable growers responded to a survey on pests, beneficial insects, and cover crop use sent in Winter 1993–94 to 314 members of the Virginia Assn. for Biological Farming (VABF) and participants at the 1993 Virginia Sustainable Agriculture Conference. Respondents reported 68 occurrences of insect pests on 99 vegetable crops and herbs. Six insects (flea beetle, squash vine borer, stink bug, cucumber beetles, and Mexican bean beetle) comprised 70% of the occurrences. Squash vine borer and cucumber beetles on cucurbits comprised 24% of all pest occurrences. Insect pests attacked summer squash on 57% and cucumber on 49% of the farms. Average severity of squash vine borer damage was 3.8 (range 0–4, where 0 = no damage and 4 = death or destroyed). Average severity of cucumber beetle damage was 3.0 (severe). Squash vine borer was not observed by farmers on non-cucurbit alternate hosts. Cucumber beetles were observed on horse nettle (10%) and wild nightshades (6%), but on no other plants in most cases (61%) when found on cucurbits. The most frequently observed beneficial insects were lady beetles (64% of the farms), preying mantises (42%), wasps (29%), assassin bugs (18%), and spiders (15%). Only 29% of the farms had purchased beneficial insects, with assassin bugs (10%) and lady beetles (7%) the most common types. Vetches, clovers, rye, and buckwheat comprised 69% of the responses on 23 types of cover crops and mulches used.

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David A. Bender and William P. Morrison

Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) has been reported to be a preferred host for diamondhack moth (Plutella xylostellu) and other insect pests when interplanted with cabbage (Brasssica oleracea var. capitata). A cabbage-Indian mustard companion planting study was conducted to determine the seasonal occurrence of cabbage insects and the potential for using a trap-crop system to reduce insecticide applications to cabbage in West Texas. Three-row plots of cabbage 9 m long were transplanted with and without sequentially seeded borders of Indian mustard in three seasons. Harmful and beneficial insects were counted at roughly weekly intervals. Insecticides were applied when insect populations in individual plots reached predetermined thresholds. Indian mustard did not appear to be more attractive than cabbage to lepidopterous pests, but did preferentially attract hemipterans, particularly harlequin bugs (Margantia histrionica). The mustard trap crop eliminated two insecticide` applications in one trial by reducing harlequin bug pressure on the cabbage.

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Michael B. Thomas, Jonathan H. Crane, James J. Ferguson, Howard W. Beck, and Joseph W. Noling

The TFRUIT·Xpert and CIT·Xpert computerbased diagnostic programs can quickly assist commercial producers, extension agents, and homeowners in the diagnosis of diseases, insect pest problems and physiological disorders. The CIT·Xpert system focuses on citrus (Citrus spp.), whereas the TFRUIT·Xpert system focuses on avocado (Persea americana Mill.), carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), and `Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tan.). The systems were developed in cooperation with research and extension specialists with expertise in the area of diagnosing diseases, disorders, and pest problems of citrus and tropical fruit. The systems' methodology reproduces the diagnostic reasoning process of these experts. Reviews of extension and research literature and 35-mm color slide images were completed to obtain representative information and slide images illustrative of diseases, disorders, and pest problems specific to Florida. The diagnostic programs operate under Microsoft-Windows. Full-screen color images are linked to symptoms (87 for CIT·Xpert and 167 for TFRUIT·Xpert) of diseases, disorders, and insect pest problems of citrus and tropical fruit, respectively. Users can also refer to summary documents and retrieve management information from the Univ. of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences extension publications through hypertext links. The programs are available separately on CD-ROM and each contains over 150 digital color images of symptoms.