A two year study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of insect resistance in sweetpotato cultivars from our breeding program in combination with an insecticide (fonofos) and/or a parasitic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae). In the laboratory, use of the parasitic nematode resulted in 99% mortality of Diabrotica larvae. In both years, much higher control of damage by all insect classes was achieved by the use of resistant cultivars in combination with a nematode and/or fonofos treatment. Analysis of the first year's field data showed the parasitic nematode treatment gave good damage protection against the WDS (Wireworm, Diabrotica, Systena), sweetpotato flea beetle, but not grubs. In this same year, fonofos only gave good protection against WDS. In the second test year, fonofos gave good protection against WDS, but the nematode did not. High moisture conditions may have affected the efficacy of the parasitic nematode. Host plant resistance by sweetpotato cultivars appears to be less affected by variable field conditions and accounted for 64% of the total crop protection (compared to the check susceptible line).
J.R. Bohac, J. M. Schalk, and P.D. Dukes
Paul G. Thompson, John C. Schneider, Boyett Graves, and R. Crofton Sloan Jr.
One hundred U.S. sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatus (L.) Lam.] plant introductions (PIs) and four control cultivars were screened for insect injury in 1993. Of the least injured by insects, 56 and 31 were tested again in 1994 and 1995, respectively. Among control cultivars, the most highly resistant was `Regal' (moderately resistant), followed by `Beauregard' (susceptible), `Centennial' (susceptible), and `Jewel' (susceptible). Stem and root injury by the sweetpotato weevil (SPW) [Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers)] and root injury by the wireworm (Conoderus sp.)–Diabrotica sp. (cucumber beetle)– Systena sp. (flea beetle) (WDS) complex were measured. SPW stem injury was less severe (P ≤ 0.05) in 1994 and 1995 in PIs 508523, 531116, and 564107 than in control cultivars. PIs 508523 and 531116 also suffered less SPW root injury than did `Regal'. In the six PIs with least SPW root injury, PIs 538354, 564149, 508523, 538286, 531116, and 564103, 70% to 85% of the roots were not injured compared with 36% in `Regal' and 6% in `Jewel'. SPW root injury scores (0 = no injury; 5 = severe injury) in those PIs averaged 0.5 vs. 2.3 for `Regal'. Only in PI 538286 was WDS injury to roots less than in `Regal' over 2 years. However, eight additional accessions suffered less WDS injury than `Regal' in 1995 and four of those were among the six with least SPW injury. The lower levels of combined insect injury found in these four PIs (compared to `Regal') show that PIs have potential use for increasing insect resistance in sweetpotato improvement programs.
Ki-Cheol Son, Ray F. Severson, and Stanley J. Kays
Levels of major root surface components for two sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars that differ in susceptibility to the sweetpotato weevil [Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers)] were determined. Analyses were made 30 days before harvest, at harvest, after curing, and after 2 months of storage during two seasons. Significant variation in the amounts of individual components, especially boehmeryl acetate, which is known to be an ovipositional stimulant for the weevil, was found before and after harvest, with season, and between cultivars. These results suggest that variation in field susceptibility of cultivars displaying moderate levels of resistance may be due in part to seasonal variation in the level of ovipositional stimulants.
Jason Cavatorta, George Moriarty, Mark Henning, Michael Glos, Mary Kreitinger, Henry M. Munger, and Molly Jahn
‘Marketmore 97’ is the most recent addition to a series of disease-resistant slicing cucumbers developed in the Cornell University Department of Plant Breeding. The fruit have green skin with white spines and an average length and diameter of 18.8 cm and 4.8 cm, respectively. Broad resistance to a number of destructive diseases and insects makes this cultivar well-suited to low-input agricultural systems at the scale of the home gardener or the commercial grower. In addition to the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), cucumber scab (Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell. & Arth.), downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis Berk & Curtis), and powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea Schl. ex Fr.) resistances of ‘Marketmore 76’, ‘Marketmore 97’ contains resistance to alternaria leaf spot [Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keis.], Ulocladium leaf spot (Ulocladium cucurbitae Let. & Roum.), target leaf spot (Corynespora cassiicola Berk. & Curt.), watermelon mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Furthermore, the bitterfree character of this cultivar is responsible for nonpreference of the striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum Fab.) and spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber). Finally, a near isogenic line of ‘Marketmore 97’ is available that is gynoecious. A replicated trial of ‘Marketmore 97’ conducted in New York in 2006 confirmed comparable yield and quality to other Marketmore cultivars.
James M. Schalk, Philip D. Dukes, Alfred Jones, and Robert L. Jarret
The reactions of eight sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] introductions were categorized for root damage by wireworms, Diabrotica sp., Systena sp. (WDS), sweetpotato flea beetle (SPFB), and grubs. Clones were compared with resistant (`Regal') and susceptible (`SC-1149-19') entries. The number of resistant clones for the WDS, SPFB, and grubs were three, four, and one, respectively, intermediate five, four, and one, and susceptible zero, zero, and six, respectively. This test demonstrated that significant levels of soil insect resistance exist in these sweetpotato introductions for use by plant breeders.
Qi Chen, Gojko Jelenkovic, Chee-Kok Chin, Sharon Billings, Jodi Eherhardt, Joseph C. Goffreda, and Peter Day
Three constructs of a coleopteran toxic cryIIIB Bacillus thuringiensis gene were engineered and incorporated into eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Southern blot analysis of the eight primary transformants and segregational analysis of their R, progenies indicated that the chimeric cryIIIB constructs in each of the transgenic plants were stably incorporated at a single locus or at multiple sites within the same linkage group and that they were regularly transmissible to the progeny. The results of Northern blot and RNase protection analyses demonstrated that transcription of the cryIIIB mRNA takes place in plant cells, but only a small amount of the expected entire length transcripts were produced. The amount of the 5' end mRNA fragment produced was at least 30 to 40 times more abundant than the amount of the 3' end mRNA fragment. This could be interpreted to mean that either the two ends of the mRNA are of different stability or that the transcription process is often interrupted and only a few mRNAs complete the entire process to the end. When the transgenic plant mRNA was reverse-transcribed, amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and hybridized to the cryIIIB probe, two smaller molecular weight mRNA species were identified. Thus, the preponderance of the cryIIIB mRNA in transgenic plants exists as a truncated species, a situation similar to that of cryI genes when expressed in transgenic plants. Seedlings from the eight independent transgenic plants were tested for Coleopteran insect resistance. However, they did not demonstrate any significant resistance to the first and second instar larvae of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say).
-two plants with fewer leafminer mines were selected and allowed to pollinate each other in isolation. Seeds were harvested from these plants to produce the breeding line 03-04-63. Description Insect resistance. The breeding line 03-04-63 was
pollinate each other in isolation. Seeds were harvested from these plants to produce the breeding line 03-04-9. Description Insect resistance. The breeding line 03-04-9 was planted in fields at the Hartnell College in July 2004 (Trial 1) and
Steven J. Damon and Michael J. Havey
phenotypes) have been associated with insect resistance in several crops. Bloomless sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] showed resistance to greenbug [ Schizaphis graminum Rondani ( Starks and Weibel, 1981 )], glossy wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. emend
Richard L. Bell
evaluating insect resistance in crop plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL Westigard, P.H. Westwood, M.N. Lombard, P.B. 1970 Host preference and resistance of Pyrus species to the pear psylla, Psylla pyricola Föerster J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 95 34 36