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Lisa K. Wagner and Shelley W. Fones

Garden Explorations, a continuing program at the South Carolina Botanical Garden (SCBG), Clemson University, promotes science participation among children, families, undergraduates, and teachers. Integrated by themes of Plants and their Partners, Plants and their Environment, and Web of Life, Garden Explorations programs include Summer Science Camps, Family Science Saturdays, and Family and Community Outreach Programs. In these programs, college students (largely education, horticulture, biology, and recreation majors) have the opportunity to learn about and experience natural science and math in the garden, along with elementary school teachers, parents, and upper-elementary age children. These inquiry-based learning opportunities enhance and expand the education and professional preparation of Clemson University students who participate in the program. By involving students in intensive hands-on, inquiry-oriented life science and math activities during Garden Explorations programs, we seek to increase science literacy in our region.

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Robert J. Joly and W.R. Woodson

The principles of plant physiology are best learned in an environment where students are directly engaged in the process of scientific inquiry. Working from this assumption, we have developed a two-stage approach to laboratory instruction that fosters student-directed research within an undergraduate plant physiology course. During the first 10 weeks of a 16-week semester, students develop competency in measuring physiological variables by using an array of standard analytical techniques. A core set of 10 laboratory experiments provides structured instruction and teaches the principles of modern physiological analyses. During week 11, students observe a demonstration of a plant response, where the underlying cause of the phenomenon is not evident. Working together in groups of three or four, students hypothesize on the physiological mechanisms that may be involved. After submitting a statement of hypothesis and a plan of study, each group then requests the necessary instrumentation, plant material and greenhouse and/or growth chamber space to conduct their experiments. Results of their experimentation are presented during week 15 in both written and oral formats. The approach appears to help students to integrate and connect learnings from earlier in the semester to solve a defined problem. Further, students learn how to judge the reliability of experimental results and to evaluate whether conclusions drawn are justified by the data.

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Brian W. Trader and Kent D. Kobayashi

and virtual field trip to engage students; and “Learning by doing: Applying the concept of pollen viability in a horticulture classroom” ( Perez, 2017 ) deals with understanding by doing—engaging in inquiry-based learning. The first article

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Carly Gillett, Kathryn Fontenot, Edward Bush, Maud Walsh, and Charles Johnson

toward locally grown foods among Japanese children HortTechnology 21 355 358 Wagner, L.K. Fones, S.W. 1999 Enhancing science education experiences through garden explorations: An inquiry-based learning opportunity at the South Carolina Botanical Garden