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Cinta Calvet, Amelia Camprubi, Ana Pérez-Hernández, and Paulo Emilio Lovato

spores can germinate under different environmental conditions in the absence of a host ( Giovannetti, 2001 ). Inoculum production has been improved in the last decades, but a recent article by Vosátka et al. (2012) confirms that commercial inocula sold

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A.W. Stretch, M.K. Ehlenfeldt, and V. Brewster

In vitro conidia production by Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi (Reade) Honey, the cause of mummy berry disease in blueberry, was significantly enhanced by cellulose acetate membranes placed on the surface of V-8 juice agar for most of the pathogen isolates tested, compared to V-8 juice agar alone. Temperature and light affected conidia production, but the effects were not consistent. Higher temperature (22 vs. 15 °C) yielded better sporulation, but the effects of light environment were variable. When 55 isolates from various sources were rated visually for sporulation on cellulose acetate membranes at 22 °C under ambient light/dark cycles, a wide range of conidium production was observed, and three of 55 isolates (6%) were identified as having very high conidia production.

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Yun-Jeong Lee and Eckhard George

A nutrient film technique (NFT) culture system was developed to allow nursery production of arbuscular mycorrhizal horticultural crops. This would benefit horticultural production and allow for uncomplicated production of mycorrhizal hyphae. Roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) plants were highly colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus mosseae (BEG 107) after 4 weeks in the NFT system, following an initial phase of five weeks in inoculated in Perlite substrate. In the NFT system, a thin layer of glass beads was used to provide solid support for plant and fungus growth and nutrient solution was supplied intermittently (15 min, six times per day). A modified nutrient solution (80 μm P) was used and was replaced with fresh solution every 3 days. A significantly higher dry weight was found for the mycorrhizal versus the nonmycorrhizal lettuce plants in Perlite during the precolonization period. The root colonization rate was also high at rates up to 80 μm P supply. On the NFT system, growth differences between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants were less than in Perlite. However, root colonization rate was not reduced during the NFT culture period. In this system, high amounts of fungal biomass were produced. This would allow the determination of metal and other nutrient concentrations in fungal hyphae. Furthermore, we found large amounts of external fungal hyphae surrounding the root surface. As much as 130 mg fungal biomass were collected per culture plate (three plants). Therefore, we suggest that this modified NFT culture system would be suitable for fungal biomass production on a large scale with a view to additional aeration by intermittent nutrient supply, optimum P supply, and a use of glass beads as support materials. Furthermore, bulk inoculum composition with a mixture of spores, colonized roots, and hyphae grown in soilless media by the modified NFT system might be a useful way to mass-produce mycorrhizal crops and inoculum for commercial horticultural purposes.

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S. Laywisadkul, C.F. Scagel, L.H. Fuchigami, and R.G. Linderman

urea or CuEDTA. Materials and methods Inoculum production and wound inoculation. Stock cultures of P. syringae [isolated from mountain laurel ( Kalmia latifolia ) by R. Linderman, USDA-ARS, Corvallis, OR] were maintained on V8 juice agar (V8A) medium

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Laban K. Rutto, Zelalem Mersha, and Mizuho Nita

-than-normal disease inoculum production and incidence for the rest of the season. Due to the increased moisture in 2013 and buildup of inoculum from the 2012 growing season, the incidence and severity of phomopsis cane and leaf spot, black rot, and downy mildew were

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Kelly Nascimento-Silva, Luis Roca-Castillo, María Benlloch-González, and Ricardo Fernández-Escobar

Viruega, J.R. Moral, J. Roca, L.F. Navaro, N. Trapero, A. 2013 Spilocaea oleagina in olive groves of southern Spain: Survival, inoculum production, and dispersal Plant Dis. 97 1549 1556 Vitanovic, E. 2012 Use of Cu fungicides in vineyards and olive groves

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Leonardo Lombardini, Astrid Volder, Monte L. Nesbitt, and Donita L. Cartmill

of entry for pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Increased inoculum production and disease spread have been observed for citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri after infestation by the asian leafminer ( Phyllocnistis

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Antonia Y. Tetteh, Todd C. Wehner, and Angela R. Davis

intensity of 200 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 , and 20 to 26 °C day and 13 to 19 °C night air temperature. Inoculum production and seedling inoculation. Seedlings were inoculated three times at weekly intervals, starting at the first true leaf stage. A spore suspension

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Margaret T. Mmbaga, Lucas M. Mackasmiel, and Frank A. Mrema

579 Mmbaga, M.T. 2002 Ascocarp formation and survival and primary inoculum production in Eysiphe (Sect. Microsphaera) pulchra in dogwood powdery mildew Ann. Appl. Biol. 141 153 161 Mmbaga, M.T. Sauvé, R.J. 2004a Evaluation for multiple disease

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Luisa Santamaria, Emmalea G. Ernest, Nancy F. Gregory, and Thomas A. Evans

transferring to the semiselective media lima bean agar ( Calvert et al., 1960 ) or modified pea agar ( Dance et al., 1975 ). After transfer, the cultures were maintained in an incubator set at 20 °C. Inoculum production and hypocotyl screening of germplasm