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Samuel S. Liu and Yong-Biao Liu

aphid resulted in significant injuries to both romaine and head lettuce in the form of brown stains identical to CO 2 injuries ( Lipton et al., 1972 ; Liu, 2012 ). Because cylindered phosphine is free of ammonia, it is possible that factors other than

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Patrick E. McCullough, Ted Whitwell, Lambert B. McCarty, and Haibo Liu

-mowed bermudagrass cultivars (Johnson, 1976a; PBI Gordon Corp., 2004 ; Ross and Lembi, 1999 ). Bensulide applied at 14 and 28 kg·ha −1 (a.i.) on dormant ‘Tifgreen’ bermudagrass caused minimal to no foliar injury during spring transition and summer growth

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Robert R. Shortell, Stephen E. Hart, and Stacy A. Bonos

with unacceptable Kentucky bluegrass injury ( Adams, 1989 ; Dernoeden and Turner, 1988 ). Aside from ethofumesate, there are currently no selective herbicides labeled for control of established annual bluegrass in Kentucky bluegrass. Bispyribac

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M. Darlene Mercer and Doyle A. Smittle

Abbreviation: CI, chilling injury. 1 Graduate Student. 2 Professor of Horticulture. Supported by state and Hatch Act funds allocated to the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the

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Federica Galli, Douglas D. Archbold, and Kirk W. Pomper

developed internal discoloration, tissue acidification, and off-flavor aroma ( Archbold and Pomper, 2008 ; Galli et al., 2008 ; Koslanund, 2003 ), common symptoms of chilling injury (CI) in many crops ( Saltveit and Morris, 1990 ). The production of

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Asadolah Aslani Aslamarz, Kourosh Vahdati, Majid Rahemi, Darab Hassani, and Charles Leslie

Low temperature is a major limiting factor in the distribution of woody plants and freeze injury is a leading cause of horticultural yield losses ( Ashworth, 1992 ; George et al., 1974 ; Parker, 1963 ). Resistance to freeze injury changes

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Michele R. Warmund, David H. Trinklein, Mark R. Ellersieck, and Reid J. Smeda

cotton in production areas where long-term use of glyphosate has resulted in resistant weed species ( Gage et al., 2019 ). Although these auxin herbicides were formulated for reduced off-target movement via particle drift and volatility, injury occurs on

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Sarah E. Dixon, Jerri L. Henry, Dean S. Volenberg, and Reid J. Smeda

Missouri Department of Agriculture received complaints of suspected dicamba injury to more than 130 acres of grapevine by Oct. 2017 ( Bradley, 2017 ). Grapevines are highly sensitive to synthetic auxin herbicides, and the effects can be long

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Jollanda Effendy, Don R. La Bonte, and Niranjan Baisakh

developed and developing countries. Skinning is inevitable and the rapid deposition of wound periderm at the injury site is critical. Wound periderm, which is similar to native periderm, forms best at 28 to 30 °C and relative humidity above 85% ( Kushman and

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María A. Equiza and David A. Francko

. Therefore, there is a continuous search for suitable species and cultivars ( Broschat and Meerow, 2000 ; Francko, 2003 ). A rapid and accurate quantitative assessment of freezing injury would facilitate the screening of putatively cold-hardy new cultivars