Five seed-quality indices based on individual seed electrolyte leakage tests were evaluated. Zea mays L. seeds were soaked for 6 hours, and individual seed leachate conductivity values were obtained. A total of 100 cells were scanned, one seed per cell, at 5-minute intervals for the first 30 minutes, followed by 15-minute intervals for the remaining 330 minutes. Seeds were allowed to dry for 5 to 7 days at room temperature and then were tested for germinability at 25C for 7 days. Radicle lengths were measured after 72 hours. The Richards function was fitted to cumulative frequency distributions of μAmps to obtain internal slope (IS), mean μAmp, and median μAmp values for each scan. Initial leach rate (ILR) was estimated after fitting hyperbolic functions to μAmp vs. soak time data. Average leach rate (ALR) was also derived from fitting the Richards function to μAmp vs. soak time data. Linear regression of seed quality on IS, mean, and median μAmp values after 5 hours of imbibition yielded r2 values of 0.91, 0.81, and 0.86 for predicting viability and 0.56, 0.46, 0.52 for predicting radicle length. Thus, IS was the best seed quality predictor, followed closely by median and mean μAmp values. ILR and ALR were not correlated with seed quality.
K.G.V. Davidson, F.D. Moore III, E.E. Roos, S. Nath, and S. Sowa
Md. Jahedur Rahman, Haruhisa Inden, and Masaaki Kirimura
hr ; T 2 = twice a day at 0900 hr and 1500 hr ; and T 3 = three times a day at 0700 hr , 0900 hr , and 1500 hr . Vertical bars represent the se of the treatment means. A max , light compensation point, and initial slope of photosynthesis in
J.W. Moon Jr., D.M. Kopec, E. Fallahi, C.F. Macino, D.C. Slack, and K. Jordan
Photosynthesis was reduced by 85% to 90% in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Derby) following a one-day chilling exposure at 8C day (450 μmol·s-1·m-2 PPF) and 5C night. Seven days of recovery at 22/17C day/night were required for full recovery of photosynthesis. More than 75% of the limitation in photosynthesis following chilling was due to non-stomatal factors, and reduced initial slopes of CO2 assimilation vs. intercellular CO, indicate that photosynthetic capacity was reduced for 5 days following chilling. Carbon dioxide assimilation at saturating intercellular CO2 (>500 μmol·mol-l) was also reduced by chilling, indicating again that stomatal limitations were a minor contributor to the photosynthetic reduction observed under ambient CO2.
Royal G. Fader and Martin J. Bukovac
The plant cuticle is the prime barrier to penetration of foliar-applied plant growth regulators (PGR). Spray additives of various chemistries are frequently included in a tank mix to increase performance of PGRs. We have reported that urea and ammonium nitrate (AN) enhance transcuticular penetration of 14C-labeled NAA (pKa 4.2) from aqueous droplets (pH 5.2) and their subsequent deposits through enzymatically isolated tomato fruit cuticular membranes (CM). Studies on effects of Triton × surfactants on AN-enhanced NAA penetration showed an additional 25% increase in NAA penetration and the AN:surfactant interaction was significant. Also, some alkylamine hydrochlorides increased NAA penetration. Studies comparing NAA penetration through tomato and pepper fruit and Citrus leaf CM in the presence of 8 mM AN or 8 mM ethylamine HCl showed that all three species exhibited the same trend for penetration at 120 h: ethylamine HCl > AN > NAA only. Comparative NAA penetration for CM of the three species was pepper > Citrus > tomato, with significant differences (P > 0.006) in NAA penetration, as indexed by initial slope and penetration after 120 h. On addition of AN, NAA penetration was greater (range 3% to 40%) for Citrus and pepper CM than tomato CM. When ethylamine HCl was added, NAA penetration through Citrus and pepper CM was less (–37 and –27%, respectively) than tomato CM as measured by the initial slope, but 6% and 11%, respectively, more than tomato CM for penetration after 120 h. The differences in NAA penetration among the three species cannot be explained by cuticle thickness, since pepper and tomato CM are 2.5- to 3.5-fold thicker than Citrus CM. We have suggested that the enhanced NAA penetration mediated by AN and ethylamine HCl (and other alkylamine HCl examined) may be related to their hygroscopic properties leading to greater deposit hydration. The significance of the differences among the species CM and surfactant-enhanced NAA penetration will be discussed, in relation to diffusion in the non-living, non-metabolic plant cuticle.
Royal G. Fader, Patricia Luque, and Martin J. Bukovac
The cuticle is the prime barrier to penetration of foliar applied plant growth regulators, which must penetrate and be transported to a reaction site before a response can be induced. Urea has enhanced performance of Fe and Zn foliar sprays and a mixture of urea and ammonium nitrate (WAN) the performance of some herbicides. The mechanism of this enhancement is not clear. We find that urea and UAN increased 14C-NAA transport across enzymatically isolated tomato fruit cuticular membranes (CM) from simulated spray droplets using a finitedose diffusion system. The initial rate and total amount of NAA penetrated was significantly increased relative to NAA alone, the enhancement being greater for UAN than urea (total amount 101% vs. 78% at 120 hours) and for the NAA anion (pH 5.2, pKa 4.2) than for the nondissociated (pH 3.2) moiety. When evaluating the concentration effect of urea and NH4NO3 individually, the greatest enhancement with urea was at 62 mm and with NH4NO3 at 8 mm. Generally the effect of urea was significantly less than NH4NO3 (+24% vs. 296%). NAA penetration was greater with NH4NO3 than with KNO3 or Ca(NO3)2 or when the nitrate anion was replaced with sulfate or phosphate. Transcuticular penetration of NAA was enhanced greatly (190% in 120 hours) on removal of cuticular waxes; however, penetration was further increased (252% in 120 hours) by adding 8 mm NH4NO3. Methylamine hydrochloride (CH3NH2.HC1, 8 mm) also increased NAA diffusion, the initial slopes (>8 hours) were 23, 14, and 2 pmols·h–1 for methylamine, ammonium nitrate, and NAA alone, respectively, while the percent of applied that penetrated after 120 hours was 68.5, 67.6, and 21.4 for methylamine, ammonium nitrate, and NAA alone, respectively. The enhancement of NAA penetration by NH4NO3 equaled or exceeded that obtained with a group of surfactants of diverse chemistries. When the surfactant Triton X-100 was compared with NH4NO3, initial penetration was more rapid with ammonium nitrate (11.7 vs. 7.3 pmols·h–1) but percent penetrating after 120 hours was greater for Triton X-100 (80.5 vs. 66.8). The possible action of NH4NO3 on NAA uptake will be discussed.
Min Wu and Chieri Kubota
maximum photosynthetic rate, initial slope, and light compensation point, respectively, and were estimated by nonlinear regression. Treatment and cultivar significances on these parameters were examined statistically using JMP software (version 5.1; SAS
Shuyang Zhen and Marc W. van Iersel
fitted using regression. Initial slopes of the Φ PSII – PPF , ETR– PPF , and NPQ– PPF curves, which estimate the rates of change in Φ PSII , ETR, and NPQ when a plant is transferred from dark to low light, were derived from the corresponding light
Gang-Yi Wu, Jun-Ai Hui, Zai-Hua Wang, Jie Li, and Qing-Sheng Ye
. Linear regression was performed on the paired values of PAR and P n below 200 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 , and the initial slope of the response curve P n − PAR was the AQY of photosynthesis. For photosynthesis measurement, the CO 2 concentration was set at
Lingyan Chen, Jinli Lai, Tianyou He, Jundong Rong, Muhammad Waqqas Khan Tarin, and Yushan Zheng
, and α, β and γ are the coefficients that are independent of PPFD , in which α is also the initial slope that showed the increasing rate of net photosynthetic rate at very low PPFD , and the units for β and γ are m 2 ·s −1 ·μmol −1 . Light use
Tadahisa Higashide and Ep Heuvelink
photosynthetic rate, ϕ = initial slope, θ = degree of curvature, and R = respiration rate ( Thornley, 1976 ). Light extinction in the plant canopy can be described by the equation: I = I 0 e –k L , in which I = horizontal light strength in the plant