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William E. Klingeman, Gregory R. Armel, Henry P. Wilson, Thomas E. Hines, Jose J. Vargas, and Philip C. Flanagan

of mugwort. Mesotrione and topramezone impede carotenoid biosynthesis by inhibiting the enzyme p -HPPD ( Norris et al., 1998 ). Mesotrione is registered for preemergence (PRE) and POST applications in corn and turfgrass ( BASF, 2013 ; Mitchell et al

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Takashi Hosoki

Effects of methyl disulfide (MeS2) on sprouting and phytohormones in dormant corms of spring-flowering gladiolus (Gladiolu×Tubergenii Hort. `Charm') were studied. Corms treated with MeS2 sprouted 30 days earlier than nontreated corms. The concentrations of endogenous promoters in the corm tissue increased and inhibitors decreased within 24 h of treatments. High concentration of inhibitors were present in the nontreated corms.

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William B. Miller, Neil S. Mattson, Xiaorong Xie, Danghui Xu, Christopher J. Currey, Kasey L. Clemens, Roberto G. Lopez, Michael Olrich, and Erik S. Runkle

appropriate for nearly every active ingredient ( Barrett, 2004 ; Blanchard and Runkle, 2007 ; Currey et al., 2010 ; Whipker and McCall, 2000 ). The majority of synthetic PGRs suppress stem elongation by inhibiting gibberellin biosynthesis ( Davis et al

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Te-Ming Tseng, Swati Shrestha, James D. McCurdy, Erin Wilson, and Gourav Sharma

turfgrass system since the 1980s, including populations resistant to photosystem II inhibitors, microtubule inhibitors, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase inhibitors, and, most recently, ALS inhibitors (Heap, 2012). Since 2012, the number of

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Xuetong Fan, Sylvia M. Blankenship, and James P. Mattheis

An ethylene action inhibitor, MCP, was applied to preclimacteric and climacteric apple [Malus sylvestris L. (Mill.) var. domestica Borkh. Mansf.] fruit. Experiments were conducted in North Carolina and Washington State utilizing the following cultivars: Fuji, Gala, Ginger Gold, Jonagold, and Delicious. MCP inhibited loss of fruit firmness and titratable acidity when fruit were held in storage at 0 °C up to 6 months and when fruit were held at 20 to 24 °C for up to 60 days. For all cultivars except `Fuji', differences in firmness between treated and nontreated fruit exceeded 10 N after 6 months storage. These beneficial effects were seen in both preclimacteric and climacteric fruit. Ethylene production and respiration were reduced substantially by MCP treatment. MCP-treated fruit had soluble solids equal to or greater than those in nontreated fruit. Storage and shelf life were extended for all cultivars tested. Chemical name used: 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP).

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Gregory R. Armel, Robert J. Richardson, Henry P. Wilson, Brian W. Trader, Cory M. Whaley, and Thomas E. Hines

sedge weeds is unlikely with these clomazone programs. Selected herbicides have been evaluated for POST over-the-top weed control in pepper. The photosystem II (PSII) inhibitor bentazon was evaluated for POST weed control in several varieties of peppers

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Matthew A. Cutulle, Gregory R. Armel, James T. Brosnan, Dean A. Kopsell, William E. Klingeman, Phillip C. Flanagan, Gregory K. Breeden, Jose J. Vargas, Rebecca Koepke-Hill, and Mark A. Halcomb

are not completely effective in the absence of a chemical control ( Case et al., 2005 ; Mathers and Ozkan, 2001 ). Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors are effective at remedially managing grasses in dicotyledonous nursery stock ( Senesac, 2002

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Hiroko Sato, Tadashi Takamizo, Tsutomu Shimizu, Kiyoshi Kawai, and Koichiro Kaku

). It is the target of at least five structurally distinct classes of herbicides, including pyrimidinylcarboxylates, sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, triazolopyrimidine sulfonamides, and sulfonylaminocarbonyltriazolinones ( Shimizu et al., 2002 ). ALS-inhibiting

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Bin Li, Ting Sang, Lizhong He, Jin Sun, Juan Li, and Shirong Guo

least until the stress is removed and the ethylene level is lowered ( Gamalero and Glick, 2012 ). Various biotic and abiotic stresses can cause an imbalance in ethylene production, and increased ethylene levels can cause leaf senescence and inhibit root

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Nathaniel A. Mitkowski and Arielle Chaves

Demethylation inhibitor fungicides [also known as sterol inhibitor fungicides, belonging to the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) Code Group #3 ( FRAC, 2012 )] are widely used on turfgrasses throughout the United States. These fungicides