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Zehuang Zhang, Qihua Lin, and Qiuzhen Zhong

development. These genes included WM27B, DL, YAB1, YABBY4, WM5, CER1, and WBLH1, which had been previously implicated in flower development. In this study, we used ‘Fugong-1’ chinese bayberry and its monoecious mutant inflorescence in three different

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Hannes Robbertse, Jaco Fivaz, and Chris Menzel

The architecture of the lychee tree and the structure of the inflorescence are described according to the terminology of Hallè et al. and Weberling. The lychee tree has rhythmic modular growth and the inflorescence is a heterocladic pleiothyrsoid. Additional paracladia may develop from a second serial bud below the first-order paracladia. Male and female flowers are borne at variable positions on the dichasia. The relation between the position and gender of the flowers on the partial inflorescences (dichasia) varied with cultivar and time.

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M. Ebi, N. Kasai, and K. Masuda

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants were cultured from immature inflorescence bulbils. The primordia of bulbils appeared initially as protuberances on reproductive apices, swelled, and then formed bulbils with protective leaves. Excised bulbils sprouted on Murashige and Skoog's medium with 5.4 μm naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and grew into plantlets. The frequency of sprouting in culture increased with the development of bulbils before excision, and immature bulbils 0.4 to 2.4 mm in diameter sprouted at a frequency of >85%. A dot immunoblot assay revealed a remarkable reduction in levels of garlic mite-borne mosaic virus in plantlets grown from immature bulbils, suggesting that such bulbils might be suitable for the propagation of virus-free garlic plants.

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B. K. Harbaugh and G. J. Wilfret


Stored ‘Candidum,’ ‘Carolyn Whorton,’ and ‘Frieda Hemple’ caladium tubers were soaked for 0, 4, 8, 16, 32, or 64 hours in 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/liter gibberellic acid (GA3) solutions to determine if flowering could be enhanced during the subsequent forcing period. Mean number of inflorescences produced per plant with no soaking was 0.2, 0.7, and 0.0 for ‘Frieda Hemple,’ ‘Candidum,’ and ‘Carolyn Whorton’ respectively, while tubers soaked in 250 mg/liter GA3 for 16 hours at 23°C averaged 2.4, 3.7, and 4.0 inflorescences per plant, respectively. There was no significant difference in number of inflorescences per plant from tubers treated with 250, 500, and 1000 mg/liter GA3. Optimum soaking time was 8 hours for ‘Frieda Hemple’ and ‘Carolyn Whorton,’ and 16 hours for ‘Candidum.’

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Yu-Chi Lee and Jer-Chia Chang

physiological fruit drop in litchi ( Menzel, 1984 ; Mustard, 1960 ; Roe et al., 1997 ; Saúco and Menini, 1989 ; Yuan and Huang, 1988 ). In response to recent climate change, particularly global warming, the increasing proportion of leafy inflorescences in

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Sea Yeat Choon and Phebe Ding

Torch ginger ( E. elatior ) is a perennial herbaceous clumping plant that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. It can be propagated from seeds or rhizomes. A torch ginger plant consists of a leaf stalk (pseudostem) and an inflorescence borne on a

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Gilles Galopin, Sandrine Codarin, Jean-Daniel Viemont, and Philippe Morel

The Hydrangea genus consists of shrubs and vines with complex and polymorphous inflorescences. They are corymbiform in H. macrophylla and H. petiolaris and panicular in H. quercifolia and H. paniculata ( Bertrand, 1992 ). In Hydrangea

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Loren C. Stephens

Bluemel Inc. Nurseries, Baldwin, MD, and was established in 2002 at the Iowa State University (ISU) turfgrass plots at the ISU Horticulture Farm, Gilbert, IA. The M 0 plant has an upright habit, inflorescences held vertically over the bloom season from

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Alisson P. Kovaleski, Jeffrey G. Williamson, James W. Olmstead, and Rebecca L. Darnell

the majority located in the United States and Canada and yield exceeded 399,000 tons ( Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2014 ). Flower or inflorescence bud number is the most important component of yield in many crops, including

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Linsey A. Newton and Erik S. Runkle

suppress inflorescence elongation, as has been shown in lupine ( Lupinus varius ) ( Karaguzel et al., 2004 ). Paclobutrazol is most effective when applied as a soil drench or sprayed on the stem ( Barrett and Bartuska, 1982 ). In addition to application