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Christopher B. Cerveny and James L. Gibson

Bougainvillea glabra is a tropical species with reportedly difficulty to propagate. Previous research has shown the importance of talc-based rooting hormones when propagating Bougainvillea, yet little has been published on the efficacy of liquid-based formulations. Therefore, our objective was to determine the optimum concentration of indolebutyric acid potassium salt (KIBA) needed to effectively root semi-hardwood stem cuttings of Bougainvillea `California Gold' and `Helen Johnson'. Sub-terminal cuttings measuring 6.5 cm were harvested from stock plants of Bougainvillea on 3-week intervals from 6 June to 8 Aug. and repeated 6 Sept. to 8 Nov. 2005. Cuttings were dipped 0.5 cm in a solution of 0, 1500, 3000, or 6000 mg·L-1 KIBA or in a 1500-mg·L-1 solution containing indolebutyric acid (IBA) 1%: napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) 0.5% and propagated under mist. Cuttings were evaluated for percent survival, rooting quality (1 = poor; 5 = best), and number of primary and lateral roots 5 weeks after planting (WAP). Differences in `California Gold' for percent survival, average rank, and number of roots were determined not significant at P ≤ 0.05. However, application of rooting hormone to `Helen Johnson' increased rooting quality, number of primary roots, and number of lateral roots by up to 24%, 53%, and 50%, respectively. Results indicated rooting performance was generally improved with application of KIBA; therefore, cuttings of Bougainvillea may benefit from a 1500-mg·L-1 solution. KIBA was also found to be as effective as the industry standard liquid formulation. Growers will have to consider the availability and cost of KIBA when propagating Bougainvillea.

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John L. Edson, David L. Wenny, and Annette Leege-Brusven

In vitro—derived microshoots of antelope bitterbrush, incubated for 1 month in media supplemented with 0.44 μm BA, grew 0.8 and 1.1 cm longer in woody plant medium (WPM) compared to full-strength and half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) media, respectively. Explants cultured in WPM supplemented with 0.44 μm BA and 0.54 μm NAA produced a mean of five axillary shoots per explant. Explants dipped in 0.1% IBA or 0.1% NAA rooted best in 0.1% IBA with 89% success ex vitro vs. 60% success in vitro. Survival of acclimatized plantlets rooted ex vitro was 95%, while 50% survived when rooted in vitro. After 1 year of greenhouse growth, 98% of plantlets survived and flowered. Chemical names used: benzyladenine (BA), 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

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Calvin Chong and Bob Hamersma

Terminal stem cuttings of four evergreens [arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis L.), `Calgary Carpet' juniper (Juniperus sabina L.), `Hetzii' juniper (Juniperus virginiana L.), and Tamarix juniper (Juniperus sabina L.)] and four deciduous {Amur maple (Acer ginnala Maxim.), common lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.), ninebark [Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.], and viburnum (Viburnum farreri Stearn)} woody landscape shrubs were treated with 0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.8% IBA mixed in talc or with 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, or 1.5% IBA dissolved in 95% ethanol, radiator antifreeze (95% ethylene glycol), or windshield washer fluid (47.5% methanol). None of the carriers were phytotoxic to the cuttings. Cuttings treated with IBA in radiator antifreeze or windshield washer fluid produced rooting in most taxa similar to those treated with IBA in ethanol. Cuttings of the evergreen taxa produced more roots with liquid than with talc IBA at similar concentration ranges. There were some differences in rooting performance (expressed in terms of percent rooting, mean root count per rooted cutting, and length of the longest root per cutting) of taxa to solvents and IBA concentrations. However, such differences, if any, were generally small or commercially insignificant, except for ninebark, which rooted optimally with no IBA and exhibited a large reduction in percent rooting with increasing IBA concentrations in windshield washer fluid. Chemical name used: indolebutyric acid (IBA).

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Marianela Ramirez, Marek J. Krasowski, and Judy A. Loo

bud were excised and transferred to the elongation medium (ACM with half-strength plant growth regulators). When the height of explants reached 3 cm, they were removed from the medium and dipped in 12.3 nM nonsalt indolebutyric acid (IBA) for 1 min and

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Carole H. Saravitz, Frank A. Blazich, and Henry V. Amerson

Hypocotyl cuttings were prepared from Ii-week-old aseptically grown seedlings of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] and cultured 18 days on media containing 0 to 40 mg IBA/liter followed by transfer to the same medium without auxin. Greatest rooting (66%) occurred after treatment with 20 mg IBA/liter, whereas the greatest number of roots per rooted cutting (7.4) was noted following treatment with 40 mg·liter-1. Chemical name used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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Carlos A. Lazcano, Fred T. Davies Jr., Andrés A. Estrada-Luna, Sharon A. Duray, and Victor Olalde-Portugal

Mature cladodes of prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia amyclaea Tenore. `Reina') were treated with five wounding methods and four concentrations of potassium salt indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA) to stimulate adventitious root formation. The wounding method and K-IBA had highly significant effects on root number and root dry mass of cladodes. Interaction between K-IBA and wounding methods showed that greater root number was obtained at the higher auxin concentrations and with wounding methods that had the greatest cut surface area. K-IBA concentrations from 4,144 to 41,442 μm (1,000 to 10,000 mg·L-1) increased root dry mass. Only the wounding method affected rotting of cladodes. Treatments allowing suberization had a higher percentage of nonrotted cladodes. This research validates the commercial practice of allowing cladodes to suberize early in the propagation cycle. K-IBA altered rooting polarity and stimulated adventitious root formation along the wounded cladode surfaces. The vertical nonsuberized wounding methods and auxin treatments are an excellent classroom demonstration for manipulating rooting polarity. Auxin application and wounding could be of commercial benefit for enhanced rooting in the clonal regeneration of new selections for prickly-pear cactus orchards.

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L. Eric Hinesley and Layne K. Snelling

Stem cuttings of Atlantic white cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.] were collected in early June 1995, divided into two parts (distal tip and proximal segment), and rooted for 12 weeks in shaded containers outdoors. Total rooting was near 80%. Mist intervals of 8 and 15 min yielded the best rooting percentages and the least dieback and injury. Two rooting media were tested, with similar results. Rooting was slightly higher in Spencer-Lemaire Rootrainers (Hillson size), compared to RoPak Multi-pots (#45). More than 90% of the tips rooted, even without IBA treatment. Auxin improved rooting of stem segments, but the difference between IBA at 1.5 and 3.0 g·L-1 was small. Yield of cuttings suitable for transplanting or potting was 80% for tips, 58% for segments. Dividing stem cuttings into two or more parts allows multiplication of rooted propagules from a collection. Chemical name used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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Laura G. Jull, Stuart L. Warren, and Frank A. Blazich

Stem cuttings of `Yoshino' Japanese cedar [Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.) D. Don `Yoshino'], consisting of tips (terminal 20 cm) of first-order laterals, distal halves (terminal 10 cm) of tips of first-order laterals, and proximal halves (basal 10 cm) of tips of first-order laterals, or tips (terminal 10 cm) of second-order laterals, were taken on four dates that represented four growth stages (softwood, semi-hardwood, hardwood, and pre-budbreak). The cuttings were treated with 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 mg IBA/liter. Branch order affected all rooting measurements at each growth stage. Regardless of growth stage, tips of and proximal halves of first-order laterals containing lignified wood had the highest percent rooting, root count, total root length, root area, and root dry weight. Hardwood tips of and semi-hardwood proximal halves of first-order laterals exhibited the highest overall rooting (87%), followed by softwood proximal halves of first-order laterals (78%). Rooting of distal halves of first-order laterals and tips of second-order laterals never exceeded 55% and 34%, respectively, at any growth stage. IBA treatment influenced percent rooting, root count, total root length, root area, and root dry weight of semi-hardwood, hardwood, and pre-budbreak cuttings, except for root dry weight of semi-hardwood cuttings. IBA had no affect on softwood cuttings. Chemical name used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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Paul H. Henry, Frank A. Blazich, and L. Eric Hinesley

Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of season (timing), IBA application, genotype, crown position, type of cutting (straight vs. heel), cutting length, and stock plant age upon adventitious rooting of stem cuttings of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). Genotype had a strong influence on percent rooting, root count, and root length of 4-year-old trees. With trees of this age, percent rooting was maximized (87%) with hardwood cuttings taken in January and treated with 5000 ppm IBA. Crown position from which cuttings were collected did not influence rooting. Straight cuttings, with or without a light wound, rooted at a significantly higher percentage (78%) than heel cuttings (52%). With 30-year-old trees, cuttings from the lower third of the crown rooted at a significantly higher percentage (67%) than cuttings from the middle third (43%). Better rooting was obtained with straight (68%) than heel (47%) cuttings. Cutting length affected rooting, with root count and length highest in longer cuttings. Increased tree age reduced rooting, although cuttings from 40-year-old trees retained substantial rooting capacity. Chemical name used: 1 H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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G.G. Ning and M.Z. Bao

acid (NAA), and indolebutyric acid (IBA) supplied in 11 combinations (see Table 1 ). To stimulate adventitious shoot induction, callus outgrowths were transferred to various media supplemented with various levels of either BA and NAA or thidiazuron