to be soil-incorporated by mechanical/physical or water methods. Following incorporation, dazomet reacts with water to produce methyl isothiocyanate, a gas that controls various fungi, insects, nematodes, and weeds ( Brosnan and Breeden, 2009 ; Unruh
Matthew D. Jeffries, Travis W. Gannon, W. Casey Reynolds, Fred H. Yelverton, and Charles A. Silcox
Jianyu Li, Xin Zhao, Gabriel Maltais-Landry, and Bodh R. Paudel
., 1991 ). Two AEM strips (10 cm deep × 2.5 cm wide each) were randomly buried in the top 10 cm of soil in each whole plot and replaced with new membranes weekly starting from sunn hemp incorporation (21 Sept. 2017 and 26 Sept. 2018) until the formation of
Kyle E. Bair, Joan R. Davenport, and Robert G. Stevens
organically grown Concord grape, 2) examine the synchronization of N release from mineralization after incorporation of cover crops with plant N demand, and 3) compare soluble, more readily available sources of N (blood meal and conventional fertilizer) to
Christopher A. Clark, Tara P. Smith, Donald M. Ferrin, and Arthur Q. Villordon
of five replications of single-row, 25-plant plots arranged in a randomized complete block design. Plots were prepared for planting by incorporating into the soil 400 lb/acre of 8N–10.5P–19.9K, bifenthrin (Brigade 2EC; Food Machinery and Chemical
Shuresh Ghimire, Arnold M. Saxton, Annette L. Wszelaki, Jenny C. Moore, and Carol A. Miles
). Biodegradable plastic offers a potential solution to some of the issues associated with PE mulch; however, BDM users are concerned about the extent and rate of mulch biodegradation in the field after soil incorporation and impacts on soil health and the
Jeremy S. Cowan, Debra A. Inglis, and Carol A. Miles
et al. (2008) reported on evaluating postincorporation deterioration by weight after sieving soil samples through a 1.8-cm screen on the day of incorporation, and 1, 3, and 12 months after incorporation following a strawberry crop in the field. All
Virginia I. Lohr and Caroline H. Pearson-Mims
The effect of organic matter addition and irrigation rates on the growth of bedding plants was found to vary with species. Marigold and sweet alyssum were field-grown with or without added peat moss under normal or 50 percent reduced irrigation.
Regardless of organic matter treatment, marigolds with reduced irrigation were shorter than those with normal irrigation. Under normal irrigation, adding organic matter had no effect on height. Under reduced irrigation, incorporating organic matter was beneficial to marigolds: plants in these plots were 10% taller than plants under reduced irrigation without added organic matter.
Sweet alyssum, a relatively drought-tolerant plant, was wider under reduced than under normal irrigation. It did not benefit from added organic matter: plants grown with added organic matter were 17% narrower than those without added organic matter, regardless of irrigation level. Blanket recommendations to add organic matter to conserve water should be avoided.
R. Ssonkko, S.J. Locascio, R.E. Stall, and D.N. Maynard
A single lime application of 5.4 t/ha per 20 cm increment of soil to a depth of 60 cm controlled bacterial wilt (Psendomonas solanacearum E. Smith) up to 2 years in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growing in a naturally infested soil. `Sunny' with 64% disease incidence, was the most susceptible, `Capitan' (20%) was intermediate, and `Caraibo' (5%) and `Hawaii 7997' (2%) were the least susceptible. Incorporation of lime 40 to 60 cm deep reduced bacterial wilt incidence in 'Capitan' by 75%, and 60% in `Sunny'. The number of bacteria in the soil was not affected by lime treatment. Soil pH and total Caincreased linearly with time and with depth of lime incorporation. Bacterial wilt control in `Sunny' and `Capitan' was associated with an increase in pH. Liming to 40 or 60 cm generally increased leaf Ca and decreased Mn, Zn, and Cu. `Hawaii 7997' contained significantly higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, and K, and lower Cu compared to 'Sunny'. `Hawaii 7997' produced significantly higher yields than the other cultivars. Deep lime incorporation increased fruit weight of `Sunny' by 184% and 'Capitan' by 79% as compared with 0 lime.
Cerinda Loschinkohl and Michael J. Boehm
The effects of incorporation of compost to a disturbed urban soil on turfgrass establishment, growth, and rust severity were assessed in a replicated field study. A blend of two locally available composted biosolids (sewage sludge) was incorporated into a nutrient-deficient subsoil at a rate of 130 m3·ha-1, adding NO3-N, P, and K at 126, 546, and 182 kg·ha-1, respectively, to each compost-amended plot. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and a mixture of these two species were seeded into both compost-amended and nonamended plots and observed for 1 year. Turfgrass establishment estimated from visual assessments of percentage cover and growth measured by clipping yields were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by the incorporation of the composted biosolids. These effects were first observed and most pronounced on plots seeded with perennial ryegrass and were apparent for the duration of the study. The severity of leaf rust caused by Puccinia sp. was significantly (P < 0.05) less on perennial ryegrass seeded on the compost-amended plots. This study demonstrates the feasibility and potential benefits of amending disturbed urban soils with composted biosolids to enhance turfgrass establishment and is the first report of the suppression of a foliar turfgrass disease through the incorporation of compost into soil.
Dale E. Kester and Thomas M. Gradziel
Approximately twenty native almond species have been described. Representative germplasm from seven of these are present in UC collections and have been used in crossing. Three specific breeding lines utilizing these species are described. One (1980 series) involved increasing yield potential through selection of high blossom density following gene introgression from Prunus fenzliana. A second involved incorporation of self-fertility, late bloom, smaller tree size, early maturity, high blossom density, and desirable nut characters from Prunus webbii into commercial breeding lines. A self-fertile selection resembling `Nonpareil' has been obtained from this material. The third line involves transmission of a unique thin, netted-surfaced, hard-shell phenotype from Prunus argentea.