Three classes of crosses using four genotypes of V. riparia (wild Riverbank grape) as maternal parents were evaluated for evidence of reproductive expression of genetic incongruity. The classes were: I V. riparia x V. vinifera cultivars (European domesticated grape); II V. riparia x French Hybrids (complex interspecific hybrids); III V. riparia x V. riparia. Percent fruit set and seeds per berry were recorded for two years. If incongruity is a factor in interspecific grape crosses, then the values for these traits would be expected to be lower in classes I and II than in class III. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences for some half-sib families. Fruit and seed set were lower in classes I and II than in class III, suggesting that incongruity is operative in wide grape crosses. In the process of creating French hybrids, genomes of several species came together over generations of hybridization. In concert with selection for fertility, repeated interspecific genomic exposure would be expected to have ameliorated the effects of initial incongruity between American species and V. vinifera, increasing their value as genetic bridges in breeding programs.
Debbv M. Filler, James J. Luby, and Peter D. Ascher
Sierd Zijlstra, Coen Purimahua, and Pim Lindhout
Crossing barriers between white- and purple-flowered species were examined. Four accessions of Capsicum annuum and three of C. pubescens were reciprocally crossed with one to four accessions of C. baccatum, C. cardenasii, C. chacoense, C. chinense, C. eximium, C. frutescens, C. galapagoense, and C. praetermissum. Capsicum chacoense is the only white-flowered species that inhibits C. annuum pollen tube growth but allows C. pubescens pollen tube penetration into the egg cell. Capsicum cardenasii and C. eximium exhibit similar crossabilities with C. annuum and C. pubescens: pollen tubes of C. cardenasii and of C. eximium can penetrate the egg cells of C. annuum but not vice versa, and pollen tubes of C. pubescens can penetrate the egg cells of C. cardenasii and of C. eximium but not vice versa.
Veli Erdogan and Shawn A. Mehlenbacher
Eight Corylus L. (hazelnut) species were intercrossed in all possible combinations to reveal genetic relationships. Pollinations were made on either individually bagged branches or trees covered entirely with polyethylene using mixtures of pollen of five genotypes to minimize low cluster set due to single incompatible combinations. Percent cluster set, seed germination, and hybrid seedling survival were determined. Hybridity of seedlings was verified by inspection of morphological traits. Based on percent cluster set, seed germination, and hybrid seedling survival along with observed morphological similarities, Corylus species were placed in three groups: 1) the tree hazels C. colurna L. (turkish tree hazel) and C. chinensis Franchet (chinese tree hazel), 2) the bristle-husked shrub species C. cornuta Marshall (beaked hazel), C. californica (A.DC.) Rose (california hazel), and C. sieboldiana Blume (manchurian hazel), and 3) the leafy-husked shrub species C. avellana L. (european hazel), C. americana Marshall (american hazel), C. heterophylla Fischer (siberian hazel), and C. heterophylla Fischer var. sutchuensis Franchet (sichuan hazel). The two tree hazel species crossed with each other readily, as did the three bristle-husked shrub species. The frequency of blanks was low (<20%) for crosses of the tree hazels, and <50% for interspecific crosses within the group of bristle-husked species. The leafy-husked shrub species could be crossed with each other in all directions, although cluster set on C. heterophylla was low. For crosses of species belonging to different groups, set was generally low and the frequency of blanks high. Nevertheless, a few hybrid seedlings were obtained from several combinations. When used as the female parent, C. californica set nuts when crossed with all other species, indicating possible value as a bridge species. Crosses involving C. avellana were more successful when it was the pollen parent. In crosses with C. avellana pollen, cluster set on C. chinensis was better than on C. colurna and the frequency of blanks was much lower, indicating that it might be easier to transfer nonsuckering growth habit from C. chinensis than from C. colurna. Reciprocal differences in the success of crosses was observed. The following crosses were successful C. californica × C. avellana, C. chinensis × C. avellana, C americana × C. heterophylla, C. cornuta × C heterophylla, C. californica × C. colurna, and C. americana × C. sieboldiana, but the reciprocals were not.
H. Guo, M.H. Dickson, and J.E. Hunter
Resistance to black rot caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris was studied in Brassica oleracea, B. campestris, and B. napus. Two accessions of B. napus, PI 199947 and PI 199949, exhibited the highest resistance so far found in cultivated Brassica spp. In B. napus, the high level of resistance was conferred by one dominant gene. In B. campestris, two Chinese cabbage accessions showed quantitative inheritance for moderate levels of resistance. Resistance was transferred to B. campestris from B. napus, but a unilateral incongruity was observed for black rot and morphology, but not for stem color or bolting. The bridge line 15 was used to transfer resistance to B. oleracea.
Jiang Lu and Olusola Lamikanra
Fluorescence microscopy was used to examine the unilateral intersubgeneric incongruity of muscadine grape (Muscadinia Planch.) × bunch grape (Euvitis Planch.). Pollen grains of bunch grape hydrated and germinated on the stigmas of muscadine grape. Healthy pollen tubes of the bunch grape also penetrated the stigma and entered into the style without obstacles. However, most bunch grape pollen tubes were arrested in the style near the stigma, and few bunch grape pollen tubes were found at the base of the style. Barriers to the intersubgeneric crosses apparently occurred before fertilization; abortion of pollen tubes in the style was the major cause of failure for the cross of V. rotundifolia Michx. × Euvitis.
G.B. Cap, P.A. Roberts, I.J. Thomason, and T. Murashige
Genotypes of Lycopersicon peruvianum (L.) Mill. and L. peruvianum var. glandulosum (Rick), selected from accessions that possess resistance to Meloidogyne incognita [(Kofoid and White) Chitwood] at high soil temperature (30C), were used as male parents in crosses with L. esculentum (Mill.) susceptible cultivars UC82, Lukullus, Tropic, and male-sterile line ms-31, respectively. The incongruity barrier between the two plant species was overcome by embryo callus and embryo cloning techniques. Hybridity of the F, progeny obtained from each cross was confirmed by differences in leaf and flower morphology, plant growth habits, and by acid phosphatase isozyme phenotypes using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In greenhouse inoculation experiments, F1 plants were highly resistant to M. incognita in soil at 25 and 30C. These results confirmed the successful transfer and expression of heat-stable resistance to M. incognita from L. peruvianum to hybrids with L. esculentum as a preliminary step to introgressing additional root-knot nematode resistance into tomato.
Neil O. Anderson, Peter D. Ascher, and Emily E. Hoover
Decreases in fertility are most common among interspecific, wide crosses of Phaseolus; intraspecific hybrids are less likely to exhibit sterility. Intraspecific CBC hybrid pedigrees were created to test for comparative fertility losses. Eight P. vulgaris cultivars from different centers of origin, polymorphic for seed proteins (15, 20, 50 kDa), were used to create 16 CBC populations: dry (`Cuarenteño', `Great Northern Harris', `Sulfur', `Swedish Brown') and snap beans (`Purple Pod Pole', `Romano Bush', `Royal Burgundy Bush', `White Half Runner'). Despite repeated attempts, two crosses failed to produce primary hybrids. Primary hybrids had decreased percent stainable pollen from the parents. Female sterility was more severe, necessitating the screening of the F1–F3 before producing the next CBC. Yield was significantly lower than midparent values for all F3 CBC pedigrees. In several cases, phaseolin was no longer the major seed protein. Other hybrid breakdown symptoms were similar to those found with wide crosses, indicative of incongruity between centers of origin.
Barbara E. Liedl and Martha A. Mutschler
Little is known about the mechanisms controlling interspecific barriers, unlike the well studied intraspecific barrier, self incompatibility (SI),. A unilateral crossing barrier (unilateral incongruity - UI) exists among the Lycopersicon species, in which crossing is impeded or prevented in one direction. Since both UI and SI can give unilateral differences in seed set, suggestions have been made that UI and SI are functionally related. L. pennellii LA716 is self-compatible, unlike the other accessions which are SI, but LA716 still exhibits UI with L. esculentum (esc). We observed the development of pollen tubes in self and cross pollinations of LA716, esc and SI accessions of L. pennellii (pen). Selfed pollen tubes in esc were at the ovary in 24 hours, while pen were 1/2 way down the style and in LA716 the pollen had not germinated. By 48 hours, the pollen tubes in LA716 were in the ovary and growth had halted in pen styles. Crosses with LA716 pollen on esc and pen resulted in pollen tube growth starting within 24 hours continuing to the ovary. Thus, UI is not a SI response and LA716 shows a delayed pollen germination and growth unlike the other Lycopersicon species examined.
Ryan J. Hayes and Edward J. Ryder
Big vein is an economically damaging disease of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) incited by Mirafiori lettuce big vein virus, which is vectored by the soil-borne fungus Olpidium brassicae (Woronin) P.A. Dang. Resistance to this disease is needed because no feasible cultural control methods have been identified. Partial resistance is available within cultivated lettuce and is expressed as delayed appearance of symptoms in combination with a reduced percentage of symptomatic plants. Complete resistance has been identified only in accessions of L. virosa L., an incongruent wild relative of lettuce. Resistance from L. virosa has not been introgressed into lettuce. The objective of this research was to determine whether big vein resistance from L. virosa can be introgressed into lettuce. Progenies of backcross (BC) hybrids between L. virosa and L. sativa cultivars were greenhouse tested for big vein resistance over four generations of self-pollination. Selected plants from resistant BC families were used as parents to create BC2 progeny from crosses with high partial-resistant cultivars, intermediate partial-resistant cultivars, and susceptible cultivars to test for the presence of transgressive segregants. Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse by infecting seedlings with O. brassicae zoospores collected from big vein symptomatic plants. Plots were evaluated for area under the disease progress curve and the percentage of symptomatic plants; asymptomatic plants from resistant families were retained in every generation. Complete resistance to big vein was not recovered, and may be the result of insufficient sampling of BCF2 progeny or linkage between resistance alleles and alleles causing incongruity. Variation for partial resistance was observed in all BC generations, and transgressive segregants were identified among BC2 families from crosses using partially resistant and susceptible parents. This research suggests that L. virosa contains alleles that confer partial resistance to big vein when introgressed into an L. sativa background, and these alleles are distinct from those present in partially resistant lettuce cultivars. Alternative breeding strategies should be pursued to introgress complete resistance from L. virosa into cultivated lettuce.
Javier Sanzol and Maria Herrero
217 227 Crane, M.B. Lewis, D. 1942 Genetical studies in pears III. Incompatibility and sterility J. Genet. 43 31 44 de Nettancourt, D. 2001 Incompatibility and incongruity in wild and