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Hongzhan Huang, James Harding, and Thomas Byrne

Inbreeding depression is found in most flower crops. Limited population size can cause inbreeding even in outcrossed populations. The Davis population of Gerbera hybrida has been selected for increasing flower yield for 15 generations. The mean yield per plant of the population has been increased from 14.2 to 28.0 flowers per winter six-month period. In each generation 23 to 80 selected parents have been crossed at random. Inbreeding coefficients were estimated from the pedigrees of each of the 6199 plants in the 16 generations. The inbreeding level in this population was found to increase in each generation and currently is 16.5%. Mean yield and inbreeding per family have a statistically significant negative correlation in generations 13 to 16. The results indicate that inbreeding is increasing in this randomly outcrossed population because of its finite number of parents, and that yield is reduced by 3.9 flowers per six-month due to inbreeding.

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Viji Sitther, Dapeng Zhang, Sadanand A. Dhekney, Donna L. Harris, Anand K. Yadav, and William R. Okie

statistics for each SSR loci including mean number of alleles per locus, observed heterozygosity (H o ), gene diversity, and inbreeding coefficient were computed using PowerMarker Version 3.0 ( Liu and Muse, 2005 ). To assess the relationship among the

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Lauren E. Kurtz, Jonathan D. Mahoney, Mark H. Brand, and Jessica D. Lubell-Brand

selfing that is beyond the S1 to the S2 and S3 generations, which may exhibit inbreeding depression. Currently there are no guidelines, regulations, or requirements for the genetics of feminized seed. Therefore, the origin of seeds in the marketplace is

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Huan Xiong, Feng Zou, Sujuan Guo, Deyi Yuan, and Genhua Niu

together to decrease the probability of self-fertilization and improve the frequency of cross-fertilization in C. mollissima . Early-acting inbreeding depression. EID can be an alternative explanation for the self-sterility syndrome associated with LSI

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Rakesh Kumar, Mahendra Dia, and Todd C. Wehner

half-sib families and those genetic variances should be calculated on that assumption. However, variances may be improperly estimated if there is natural self-pollination (inbreeding). In addition, knowledge of the rate of natural self- or cross

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Mark K. Ehlenfeldt

Inbreeding coefficients were calculated for highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars based on a tetrasomic inheritance model. This model yielded lower inbreeding coefficients than previous calculations based on a disomic tetraploid inheritance model. Recent trends in breeding have resulted in significant use of V. darrowi Camp as a source of low-chilling germplasm for use in the southern United States. There is also a trend toward increased inbreeding in several crosses from which recently released cultivars have been derived. Increased inbreeding coefficients do not represent a detrimental situation in blueberry per se.

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Ali Lansari, Dale E. Kester, and Amy F. Iezzoni

The mean inbreeding and coancestry coefficients were calculated for almond, Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb, cultivars from the United States, France, Spain, Israel, and Russia. To improve cultivars to meet market demand, the recurrent use of four selections as parents in U.S. breeding programs has resulted in a mean inbreeding coefficient (F) of 0.022 in this collection. In France, a single cultivar, Ferralise, has an inbreeding value of F = 0.250, while cultivars of other almond-producing countries are noninbred (F = 0). Due to the use of common parents, U.S., Russian, and Israeli cultivars share coancestry, while coancestries also exist between French and Spanish almond germplasm. Cultivars of known parentage in the United States, Russia, Israel, France, and Spain trace back, respectively, to nine, eight, three, four, and three founding clones. Future almond-breeding programs may narrow the genetic base and thereby limit genetic gain.

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Ossama Kodad and Rafel Socias i Company

hazelnut ( Corylus avellana L.), stressing the importance of pollen on fruit characteristics. The decrease in almond nut and kernel weight when comparing self- with cross-pollination has been attributed to inbreeding depression effects ( Oukabli et al

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José Manuel Alonso and Rafael Socias i Company

Pollen tube growth after selfing was studied in four almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) families derived from crosses between self-compatible `Tuono' and self-incompatible `Ferragnès' and `Ferralise' in both directions, in order to ascertain the phenotypic expressions of the different genotypes. A differential expression of self-compatibility was observed in the seedlings of the different families. The genetic self-compatible offspring of `Ferralise' showed a lower percentage of pistils with pollen tubes at the style base and a lower number of pollen tubes at the pistil base after self-pollination than those observed in the self-compatible offspring of `Ferragnès'. This low level of self-compatibility expression observed in some `Ferralise' seedlings may be due to the inbreeding present in `Ferralise'. As a consequence, caution must be taken in almond breeding to avoid the increase of inbreeding by the utilization of related parents and to diversify the sources of self-compatibility, at present mostly limited to `Tuono.'

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Carolyn J. DeBuse, Douglas V. Shaw, and Theodore M. DeJong

Controlled pollinations were made using 20 elite selections from the University of California, Davis, Prunus domestica (european plum) breeding program as parents. These parents were used to generate 11 self-pollinated progenies with an inbreeding coefficient (F) of 0.5, 10 full-sibling progenies (F = 0.25), and 11 progenies from among nonrelated parents (F = 0). Seven additional progenies were chosen as a random-mating control set within the parental group; progenies in the control set had accumulated a range of current inbreeding coefficients (average F = 0.23) over two to five generations with intervening cycles of selection. Survival percentages were 85, 82, and 74 for the full-sib progeny, control set progeny, and selfed progeny, respectively, relative to nonrelated progeny. Two months after germination the percent decrease in the growth trait means for the selfed progeny compared to the nonrelated progeny ranged from 14% to 30% whereas growth trait means for full-sib progeny decreased from 1% to 9% compared to nonrelated progeny. The percent decrease for growth trait means of the selfed progeny after completing one season of growth in the field (10 months) was similar to that observed after 2 months, ranging from 14% to 28% compared to nonrelated progeny, whereas the decrease in full-sib progeny trait means was somewhat greater, ranging from 6% to 20%. Regression analysis of all growth traits on current-generation rates of inbreeding indicated a significant negative linear relationship (P = 0.0011 to 0.0232). No significant relationships were found between accumulated Fs and growth trait means of the control set progenies and the nonrelated progenies after 2 months in the greenhouse or one season growing in the field, suggesting that selection between breeding cycles decreased inbreeding depression.