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Justin A. Schulze, Jason D. Lattier, and Ryan N. Contreras

associated with overcoming dormancy. This hormone was used in successful in vitro germination ( Şan et al., 2014 ) and embryo rescue ( Kukharchyk and Kastrickaya, 2006 ) media in Prunus and could be an essential component to successful germination of

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Dave I. Thompson, Neil O. Anderson, and Johannes Van Staden

) used colchicine [50 to 250 μM; 0.002% to 0.01% (w/v)] to induce polyploids in pulse-treated hypocotyls of in vitro-germinated Watsonia lepida N.E.Br with a maximum success rate of 3%. The genus Watsonia Mill. (Iridaceae) comprises 52 southern

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Claudia A. Espinosa-Leal and Silverio Garcia-Lara

, separately and combined, on the in vitro germination of krantz aloe under aseptic conditions using Murashige and Skoog (MS) culture media ( Murashige and Skoog, 1962 ) as a standard substrate has not been investigated previously. Therefore, the objective of

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Bekir Şan, Adnan Nurhan Yildirim, and Fatma Yildirim

seeds in some species such as Arabidopsis, caper, and hazelnut ( Aygun et al., 2009 ; Debeaujon and Koornneef, 2000 ; Soyler and Khawar, 2007 ). Additionally, to overcome seed dormancy, in vitro germination was also successfully used in strawberry

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Jane Kahia, Margaret Kirika, Hudson Lubabali, and Sinclair Mantell

level. Plant materials The explants evaluated were type 1; leaves from in vitro-germinated seedlings, type 2; leaves from 6-month-old seedlings raised in green house, type 3; hypocotyls of somatic embryos type 4; leaves from coffee somatic embryos, type

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Sheng Wang and Qi Zhang

Many golf courses and turfgrass managers use recycled water, which contains high salts, as part or a sole irrigation source to lower costs and comply with governmental restrictions on water use. High salinity negatively affects turfgrass performance. Using salt-tolerant species or cultivars is one the most effective methods to address salinity problems. Twenty-six commercially available creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) cultivars were evaluated for salt tolerance during in vitro germination on 1% agar media supplemented with NaCl at 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 g·L−1 at 25/15 °C (day/night) under fluorescent light (36 μmol·s−1·m−2) with an 8- to16-h photoperiod. Significant variations in salinity tolerance were observed among the cultivars. Final germination rate (FGR, %) and daily germination rate (DGR, %/d) decreased linearly or quadratically as salinity levels increased. ‘Declaration’, ‘Seaside II’, ‘T-1’, and ‘Bengal’ were the most salt-tolerant, requiring salt levels at or greater than 16.0 and 10.0 g·L−1, respectively, to reduce FGR and DGR by 50%. In contrast, ‘Tyee’, ‘Kingpin’, and ‘SR1150’ required average salinity levels of 11.6 and 6.5 g·L−1 to cause 50% reduction in FGR and DGR, respectively, showing that they were the least salt-tolerant cultivars. The largest difference between FGR (1.9%) and DGR (26.2%) reduction under saline conditions was observed at 5 g·L−1, indicating that DGR was more sensitive to salinity changes than FGR. Therefore, DGR might be a more reliable method to be used for salt selection.

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Jessica DiMatteo, Lauren Kurtz, and Jessica D. Lubell-Brand

environment on sexual expression in hemp Bot. Gaz. 71 197 219 Voyiatzi, C.I. 1995 An assessment of the in vitro germination capacity of pollen grains of five tea hybrid rose cultivars Euphytica 83 199 204 Zottini, M. Mandolino, G. Ranalli, P. 1997 Effects of γ

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Arancha Arbeloa, Ma Elena Daorden, Elena García, Pilar Andreu, and Juan A. Marín

‘Myrobalan 2’-F 1 . The genotypes 1 and 2 did not show any significant differences between them ( Fig. 2A ). Discussion We achieved an adequate and elevated in vitro germination rate of ‘Myrobalan’ embryos by using a set of culture conditions defined in our

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Ing-Jiun Tom Wu, G.L. Wheeler, and F.H. Huang

Scarification treatments (a control, a 10-minute vacuum, or a 1.5-minute ultrasound), different media (modified Norstog and Van Waes) and growth regulators [benzyladenine (BA) at 0, 1, 1.5, or 2 mg·L-1 and 6-(r,r-dimethylallylamino)-purine riboside (2iPR) at 0, 1, 1.5 or 2 mg·L-1] were used in combination to increase seed germination of Cypripedium calceolus var. parviflorum. Seeds treated with ultrasound had higher germination (58.0%) than those treated with vacuum (27.4%) or controls (19.2%). Germination rates increased with 2iPR level and reached a maximum between 1.5 and 2 mg·L-1. Seeds on Van Waes medium, which were not transferred to fresh medium after germination, had a severe browning problem causing many protocorms to die. Those on Norstog medium continued to grow into seedlings with less browning. Germination rates of Calopogon tuberosus × Calopogon `Adventure' and Liparis liliifolia were determined on the different media and growth regulator treatments. Multiple shoots of Calopogon developed from single seeds on media containing growth regulators. Flower buds formed in vitro on Calopogon in media containing 1 mg·L-1 or higher BA 5 months after germination. L. Iiliifolia seeds in Norstog medium had a higher proportion of germination than those in Van Waes medium.

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Natalia R. Dolce, Ricardo D. Medina, and María T. González-Arnao

of seven South American Ilex species and comparing different methodologies for in vitro germination of fresh and cryostored seeds, including I. paraguariensis (the source of raw material for the production of maté, the most popular beverage in the