fumigants Agr. Resource Econ. Update 9 9 11 Gustafson, D. 1989 Groundwater ubiquity score: A simple method for assessing pesticide leachability Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 8 339 357 Khoshnevisan, B. Rafiee, S. Mousazadeh, H. 2013 Environmental impact assessment
Olya Rysin, Amanda McWhirt, Gina Fernandez, Frank J. Louws, and Michelle Schroeder-Moreno
Milton E. Tignor, Sandra B. Wilson, Gene A. Giacomelli, Chieri Kubota, Efren Fitz-Rodriguez, Tracy A. Irani, Emily B. Rhoades, and Margaret J. McMahon
Laura Pickett Pottorff and Karen L. Panter
Pesticide Impact Assessment Program for funding this project. We also thank each of the nine Denver-area greenhouses involved for their assistance and participation.
David Staats, David Hillock, and James E. Klett
Funding was provided by Colorado Experiment Station (Project 713) and Western Region Pesticide Impact Assessment and IR-4 Minor Use Programs. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under
Milton J. Haar, Steven A. Fennimore, and Cheryl L. Lambert
1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed. E-mail address: email@example.com The cooperation of Lionel Handel, Pezzini Farms, and Sea Mist Farms is gratefully acknowledged. The National Pesticide Impact
Michael P. Croster and John B. Masiunas
conduct the nitrogen analysis, Elizabeth Wahle and Harry Bottenberg for assistance with the statistical analysis, and Asgrow Seeds for donating the pea seed. This research was supported in part by the Illinois Pesticide Impact Assessment Program. The cost
Brian A. Kahn, John P. Damicone, and Raymond Joe Schatzer
, and in part by a grant from the Southern Region Pesticide Impact Assessment Program. We thank Thomas Genoff and his family for their cooperation. The information given in this publication is for educational purposes only. Mention of a trademark
Harry Bottenberg, John Masiunas, Catherine Eastman, and Darin Eastburn
provided by Don Elliott, Jim Poppe, Doyle Dazey, and Kyle Krapf. We thank Asgrow Seed Company for donating the snapbean seed. Funding was provided by the Pesticide Impact Assessment and the Integrated Pest Management Programs, North Central Region.
Don J. Durzan and M.D. Durzan
Prospects for the establishment of joint-ventured agribusiness in developing countries are a function of international agreements, local risk conditions, business networks, and banking systems that are willing to support the innovative transfer, protection, assessment, and commercialization of biotechnology. The integration of biotechnology will occur only if truly convincing practices emerge that enhance biodiversity and the competitiveness of sustainable production, utilization, and marketing cycles. Integration also depends on agreements on intellectual property rights, plant protection, trade and tariffs, price stabilization, and non-trade-distorting policies. These policies deal with broad issues in research, pest and disease control, environmental quality, germplasm conservation, resource retirement programs, and even with crop and disaster insurance. Measures derived from these policies will apply to novel processes and to organisms that have been genetically engineered and approved for release into the environment. For developing countries, much more attention will have to be paid to biological diversity and sustainable balances among intercropped agriforest and horticultural production systems. Balances should be compatible with regional and local customs and practices before genetically engineered “green goods and services” are introduced in the marketplace. Recombinant DNA technologies are currently better-suited to deal on a “gene-by-gene” basis, with commodity surpluses and material conversions involving more concentrated and industrialized processes than with field plantations of genetically engineered, complex, and long-lived crops that may require considerable adaptive plasticity. In most countries with developing economies, the integration of recombinant DNA technology represents a “special problematique” involving politico- and socioeconomic and environmental factors. Barriers to transfer and integration may involve evolving international agreements, public acceptance, resource over-exploitation, environmental degradation, rapid insect and disease resistance, contaminated water and food supplies, reduced quality of life, labor quality, corruption, crime, farmers' rights, germplasm conservation, and lack of protection of intellectual property, among other factors. Hence, the timing and mode of transferring biotechnology needs considerable impact assessment on a case-by-case basis.
Brian A. Kahn and Raymond Joe Schatzer
-03-W-OK from the Southern Region Pesticide Impact Assessment Program. The authors thank Wendy A. Nelson and Bruce Bostian for technical assistance with the field experiments. The information given in this publication is for educational purposes only