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Todd A. Burnes, Robert A. Blanchette, Jason A. Smith, and James J. Luby

selling or planting of certain Ribes species or cultivars, particularly the nonnative European black currant, R . nigrum , that has been found to be extremely susceptible to WPBR ( Barney and Hummer, 2005 ; McKay, 2000 ). One source of immunity to C

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Sin-Ae Park, A-Young Lee, Hee-Geun Park, Ki-Cheol Son, Dae-Sik Kim, and Wang-Lok Lee

for applying gardening as a physical activity intervention, as well as regarding its health benefits, especially in relation to blood vasculature and immunity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of gardening

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Andrew K. Miles, Malcolm W. Smith, Nga T. Tran, Timothy A. Shuey, Megan M. Dewdney, and André Drenth

long period between infection and symptoms expression, assessment of the different levels of expression, and the varied priorities when assessing fruit. In this study, we used the definitions of D’Arcy et al. (2001) for the terms “immune,” “resistant

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Jun Zeng, Jing Sun, Yang Xu, Fadi Chen, Jiafu Jiang, Weiming Fang, and Sumei Chen

. yoshinaganthum , C. makinoi var. wakasaense , C. nankingense , C. vestitum , C. lavandulifolium , C. crassum ) were symptom-less (type “0,” see Fig. 2 ) and therefore were classed as immune. C. japonense and C. × shimotomaii had developed a small

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Wojciech J. Janisiewicz, Robert A. Saftner, William S. Conway, and Philip L. Forsline

deviations were calculated for severity of decay and the accessions were divided into four resistance categories: immune = no decay at inoculum levels of 1 × 10 3 and 1 × 10 4 mL −1 ; resistant = no decay at 1 × 10 3 mL −1 ; moderately resistant = decay

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Ebrahiem M. Babiker, Stephen J. Stringer, Hamidou F. Sakhanokho, Barbara J. Smith, and James J. Polashock

SD16-86 and Rebel developed typical stem blight lesions that were significantly longer than lesions from the noninoculated control. None of the accessions exhibited immunity ( P < 0.05; Fig. 4 ). There was a significant effect of isolate and

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Ebrahiem M. Babiker, Stephen J. Stringer, Barbara J. Smith, and Hamidou F. Sakhanokho

inspected and the disease reactions were rated as immune (0), where necrotic flecks and no sporulation were detected on the leaf surface; resistant (1), where necrosis, chlorosis, and limited sporulation were observed; moderate resistant/moderate susceptible

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M.R. Gorham, T.M. Waliczek, A. Snelgrove, and J.M. Zajicek

dumping and/or drug activity, increased property values, increased neighborhood redevelopment, and increased immunity from crime. Interview responses and information gathered through the Urban Harvest website ( Urban Harvest, 2008 ) indicated that the

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Chandrasekar S. Kousik, Scott Adkins, William W. Turechek, and Pamela D. Roberts

PIs tested in our study were completely immune to SqVYV. Resistance was generally manifested by a decrease in the rate of disease development relative to the commercial cultivars tested. The major findings of this screening are similar to what was