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Lyn A. Gettys and William T. Haller

disruption of photosynthesis and carotenoid formation and damages membrane structural integrity {[ Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA)], 2006 }. Topramezone is currently being evaluated for aquatic use under a Florida EUP issued in 2008. Imazamox is

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Grant R. Manning and Steven A. Fennimore

Methyl bromide has been the foundation of chemical weed control in strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) in California for over 40 years. The impending phaseout of methyl bromide may leave strawberry producers dependent on less efficacious alternative fumigants for weed control. The use of herbicides to supplement fumigants is a potential weed control strategy for strawberry. A 2-year field study was conducted in California to evaluate 10 herbicides as possible supplements for methyl bromide alternative fumigants. Herbicides were applied immediately after transplanting (immediate posttransplant), and 3 weeks after transplanting (delayed posttransplant). Napropamide applied immediate posttransplant was included as a commercial standard. Immediate posttransplant treatments that were safe in strawberry include carfentrazone at 0.075 and 0.15 lb/acre (0.084 and 0.168 kg·ha-1), flumioxazin at 0.063 lb/acre (0.071 kg·ha-1) and sulfentrazone at 0.175 and 0.25 lb/acre (0.196 and 0.28 kg·ha-1). Triflusulfuron at 0.016 lb/acre (0.017 kg·ha-1) was the only delayed posttransplant treatment with acceptable selectivity. Among the selective herbicides applied immediate posttransplant, flumioxazin and napropamide provided the most consistent control of bur clover (Medicago polymorpha) and shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). Triflusulfuron applied delayed posttransplant did not significantly reduce bur clover densities, but did reduce shepherd's purse densities.

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Edmund J. Ogbuchiekwe, Milton E. McGiffen Jr., Joe Nunez, and Steven A. Fennimore

Preemergent and postemergent herbicides were evaluated in the Mediterranean climate of the southern San Joaquin Valley and the desert climate of the Imperial Valley from 1998 through 2000. Sixteen herbicide treatments were applied both as preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) applications to carrot (Daucus carota L.). Carrot was generally more tolerant to PRE herbicide applications than to POST applications. Carrot was tolerant to PRE and POST imazamox and triflusulfuron at both locations. Carrot root losses due to herbicide were consistent with visual ratings. Treatments that injured carrot tops early in the growing season did not always reduce yield at the end of the season. PRE applications of imazamox and triflusulfuron did not affect carrot tops or the number or weight of marketable carrots. Carrots grown in the Imperial Valley and in the San Joaquin Valley were tolerant to PRE applications of carfentrazone, sulfentrazone, and imazamox. Results were similar for POST applications, although carfentrazone slightly injured carrot roots. PRE application of herbicides increased forked roots more than POST. Chemical names used: α, 2-dichloro-5-[4-(difluoromethyl)-4,5-dihydro-3-methyl-5-oxo-1H-1, 2,4-triazol-1-yl]-4-fluorobenzenepropanoic acid (carfentrazone); N-[2,4-dichloro-5-[4-(difluoromethyl)-4,5-dihydro-3-methyl-5-oxo-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]phenyl]me thanesulfonamide (sulfentrazone); N-(2 carbomethoxy-6-chlorophenyl)-5-ethoxy-7-fluoro (1,2,4) triazolo-[1, 5-c] pyrimidine-2-sulfonamide (cloransulam-methyl); 2-chloro-N-[(1-methyl-2-methoxy)ethyl]-N-(2,4-dimethyl-thein-3-yl)-acetamide (dimethenamid); (2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-5-(methoxymethyl)-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid) (imazamox); 3-chloro-5-[[[[(4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl) amino] carbonyl] amino] sulfonyl]-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid (halosulfuron); N-[[(4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)amino]carbonyl]-3-(ethylsulfonyl)-2-pyridinesulfonamide (rimsulfuron); (methyl 2[[[[[4-(dimethylamino)-6-[2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl] amino] carbonyl] amino] sulfonyl]-3-methylbenzoate) (triflusulfuron).

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S. Alan Walters, Bryan G. Young, and Ronald F. Krausz

A field study was conducted in 2002, 2003, and 2004 to evaluate various pre-emergence herbicides (ethafluralin & clomazone, ethafluralin & clomazone + halosulfuron, and ethafluralin & clomazone + imazamox) with or without a winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop in tillage and no-tillage `Appalachian' pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) production. All herbicides were applied within two days of seeding, and no injury was observed with any of the herbicides evaluated at any time during the three growing seasons. Early- and late-season control of all weed species [giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.), common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), and common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer)] were highly correlated (0.47 ≤ r ≥ 0.86, P ≤ 0.01) with pumpkin yield and fruit size. The winter rye + no-tillage system provided greater weed control compared to the tillage systems and the no cover crop + no-tillage production system. Although winter rye alone had little influence on pumpkin yield, the no-tillage system improved pumpkin yield and fruit size compared to the tillage system. The two herbicide combinations (ethafluralin & clomazone + halosulfuron and ethafluralin & clomazone + imazamox) improved weed control and pumpkin yields compared to only ethafluralin & clomazone. Although this study indicated that the use of a high-residue winter rye cover crop in no-tillage pumpkin production will provide some weed control, the choice of pre-emergence herbicides is critical to maximize pumpkin productivity. No-tillage pumpkin production is feasible with proper herbicide use and timing, although current herbicide options will not provide optimal weed control.

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S. Christopher Marble, Matthew T. Elmore, and James T. Brosnan

M. sinensis (primarily planted as an ornamental), respectively, two species that have become naturalized and problematic weeds in Asia ( Hakoyama et al., 1977 ; Sugiura et al., 1970 ). Results showed that imazethapyr, imazamox, and rimsulfuron were

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bodies of water that are used by homeowners for irrigation of landscape ornamentals and bedding plants. Gettys and Haller (p. 546) found that current irrigation restrictions on imazamox and penoxsulam are adequate to minimize damage to begonia, vinca

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Martin M. Williams II and Carl A. Bradley

bentazon, fomesafen, imazamox, linuron, and sulfentrazone Weed Technol. 28 601 607 Zhang, Q.Y. Hashemi, M. Hebert, S.J. Li, Y.S. 2013 Different responses of preemergence and early seedling growth to planting depth between vegetable soybean and grain

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Larissa Larocca de Souza and Marcelo L. Moretti

453 460 doi: 10.1614/0890-037x(2001)015[0453:Drneoh]2.0.Co;2 Ramsdale, B.K. Messersmith, C.G. 2001b Nozzle, spray volume, and adjuvant effects on carfentrazone and imazamox efficacy Weed Technol. 15 485 491 doi: 10.1614/0890-037x(2001)015[0485:Nsvaae]2

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Daljeet S. Dhaliwal and Martin M. Williams II

Weed Technol. 33 530 534 Williams, M.M. II Nelson, R.L. 2014 Vegetable soybean tolerance to bentazon, fomesafen, imazamox, linuron, and sulfentrazone Weed Technol. 28 601 607 Zandonadi, R. Stombaugh, T. Coolong, T. Pfeiffer, T. 2010 Mechanical

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Megh Singh, Mayank Malik, Analiza H.M. Ramirez, and Amit J. Jhala

, and 90 DAT ( Table 1 ). In an experiment conducted for weed control in glyphosate-resistant alfalfa, a tank mix of pendimethalin and glyphosate provided 100% control of horseweed compared with a tank mix of pendimethalin with imazamox (25% control) or