The fungicides thiabendazole (TBZ) or imazalil were applied at 1 g·liter-1 at 24 or 53C to `Marsh' and `Redblush' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) to reduce fruit susceptibility to chilling injury (CI) and decay. Generally, there was more CI and decay on `Marsh' grapefruit than on `Redblush'. Severity of CI was lower in grapefruit that had been dipped at 53C than at 24C. Fruit dipped in fungicides had less CI than fruit dipped in water alone. Imazalil was more effective in reducing CI than TBZ. Fungicides reduced decay at both temperatures, and imazalil was better than TBZ. Chemical names used: 2-(4-thiazolyl)benzimidazole (thiabendazole, TBZ); 1-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(2-propenyloxy)ethyl] -1H -imidazole (imazalil).
Roy E. McDonald, William R. Miller, T.G. McCollum, and G. Eldon Brown
Patricia E. Hung, Vincent A. Fritz, Thor Kommedahl, Albert H. Markhart III, and Luther Waters Jr.
Experiments were conducted to determine if the fungicide imazalil infused into shrunken-2 sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. rugosa Bonaf.) seed via acetone could protect against soil- and seedborne fungi enough to improve germination and vigor. `Florida Staysweet' and `Crisp-n-Sweet 710' seeds were infused for 0.25 hours with 1% or 2% (w/w) imazalil-acetone (LA) solutions, air-dried, and subjected to a modified laboratory seedling growth cold test using sterile soil or soil inoculated with Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon. Both IA concentrations significantly reduced the incidence of diseased seedlings in soil inoculated with F. moniliforme when compared to nontreated controls. Neither treatment significantly reduced the incidence of seedborne fungi. Chemical name used: 1-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(2-propenyloxy)ethyl-H-imidazole (imazalil).
Jiaqi Yan, Megan M. Dewdney, Pamela D. Roberts, and Mark A. Ritenour
treated according to specific protocols, including washing, brushing, surface disinfesting, imazalil, and/or thiabendazole application and waxing ( USDA-APHIS, 2010 , 2012 ). However, previous reports indicated that postharvest thiabendazole or imazalil
Roy E. McDonald, William R. Miller, and T. G. McCollum
The fungicides thiabendazole (TBZ) or imazalil were applied at 1 g·liter-1 at 24 or 53C to `Marsh' and `Redblush' grapefruit (Citrus paradis i Macf.) to reduce fruit susceptibility to chilling injury (CI) and decay. There was more CI and decay on `Marsh' grapefruit than on `Redblush'. CI was found to be lower in grapefruit that had been dipped at 53C than at 24C. CI was higher after water dips without fungicide. Imazalil was found to be more effective in reducing CI than TBZ. Fungicides reduced decay at both temperatures, and imazalil was better than TBZ. Results of this study confirm the benefits of high-temperature fungicide treatments for maintaining grapefruit quality and indicate some benefits of high-temperature fungicide treatments for reducing CI.
Carlos A. Parera and Daniel J. Cantliffe
Poor emergence and low seedling vigor are characteristics of many supersweet sweet corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars carrying the shrunken-2 (sh2) gene. Four sh2 sweet corn cultivar seeds [`How Sweet It Is' (HSII), `Crisp N' Sweet 711' (CNS-711), `Sweet Belle' (SB), and `Dazzle' (DZ)] were solid-matrix-primed (SMP), SMP with sodium hypochlorite (SMPcl), treated with a fungicide combination (F) (Imazalil + Captan + Apron + Thiram), or primed with the aforementioned fungicides (SMPf). The seed treatments were tested in the laboratory and the field. Seed imbibition and leachate electrical conductivity were lower in SMP seeds than in nonprimed seeds. In the field, emergence percentage and rate of CNS-711 and SB (high-vigor seeds) were not improved by the seed treatments compared to the nontreated seeds. Emergence percentage and rate of HSII and DZ (considered low-vigor seeds) were improved as a result of SMPcl, SMPf, or F treatments compared to nonprimed seeds. Compared to the F treatment, the SMPcl presowing treatment increased DZ seedling emergence rate and percentage. The combined SMP and seed disinfection via NaOCl seems to be a promising fungicide seed-treatment substitute that improves the stand establishment and seedling vigor of sh2 sweet corn cultivars. Chemical names used: 1-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(2-propenyloxy)ethyl]-1 H imidazole (Imazalil); N-[(trichloromethyl)thio]-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide(Captan); N- (2,6-dimethylphenyl)- N -(methoxyacetyl)alanine methyl ester (Apron); tetramethylthiuram disulfide (Thiram).
R. Potjewijd, M.O. Nisperos, J.K. Burns, M. Parish, and E.A. Baldwin
Varying the cellulose component of coating formulations affected the survival of two yeast biocontrol agents, Candida guillermondii (Castelani) Langeron and Guerra strain US7 and Debaryomyces sp. strain 230, when these yeasts were incorporated into the coating. Using methylcellulose as the main film-former gave the most recovery of the yeasts after an incubation period for both strains. Significant control of decay on naturally infected `Pineapple' and `Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] was demonstrated for US7 in a methylcellulose-based coating for the first 2 to 4 weeks of storage at 16C and 90% relative humidity. During this time, US7 in methylcellulose formulations was similar in decay control to a commercial shellac coating with imazalil at 2000 mg·liter–1. A US7 concentration of at least 105 colony-forming units/cm was maintained on the coated fruit surface of `Valencia' oranges for 3 weeks of storage. Suppression of decay by US7 was improved by the addition of glucose and calcium chloride to the coating formulation. Although nearly equal in concentration recovered, Debaryomyces strain 230 was not as effective as US7 in disease suppression of `Pineapple' oranges. The addition of US7 to Nature Seal, a coating material made with methylcellulose, had neither a quantitative nor a qualitative effect on the pathogen population compared to the same formulation without the antagonist. Chemical name used: 1-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(2-propenyloxy)ethyl]-1H-imidazole (imazalil).
K.S. Mayberry and T.K. Hartz
Trials were conducted in California to evaluate techniques to extend storage life of netted muskmelons (Cucumis melo L.). The use of polyethylene bags, either as individual melon wraps or as liners for 18-kg commercial cartons, minimized water loss and associated deterioration of the fruit. Individual bags and carton liners were equally effective. A 3-minute dip in 60C water effectively checked surface mold development on wrapped fruits. Lower temperature and/or shorter exposure treatments were less effective. When applied in addition to hot water treatment, imazalil fungicide did not confer significant additional benefit. The combination of polyethylene bags and hot water treatment maintained high quality, marketable fruit for at least 28 days of storage at 3C,
T.K. Hartz and J. Caprile
Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars carrying the sh2 mutation show poor seed vigor under stressful field conditions, requiring higher seeding rates to ensure stand establishment. The effects of sodium hypochlorite seed disinfestation, solid matrix priming (SMP), and seed-coating with Gliocladium virens Miller, Giddens & Foster to enhance emergence of sh2 sweet corn in controlled-environment cold stress tests and field trials were investigated. In combination with a chemical fungicide seed treatment (captan, thiram, imazalil, and metalaxyl), SMP significantly improved the percentage and rate of seedling emergence of `Excel' and `Supersweet Jubilee' in a cold stress test (in soil for 7 days at 10C, then 15C until emergence) but was inconsistent under field conditions, improving emergence in only one of four field trials. Sodium hypochlorite disinfestation was ineffective. Compared to a film-coated control, coating seeds with G. virens strain G-6 was highly effective in increasing emergence in two of three cultivars tested in cold stress tests in two soils, while strain G-4 was generally ineffective. In field trials, G-6 treatment significantly increased emergence over that of nontreated seed but was inferior to conventional fungicide treatment and conferred no additional benefit in combination with fungicide treatment. Overall, no seed treatment evaluated was an economically viable alternative for or supplement to chemical fungicide treatment. Chemical names used: cis-N-trichloromethylthio-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide (captan); tetramethyl-thiuram disulfide (thiram); 1-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(2-propenyloxy)ethyl]-1H-imidazole (imazalil); N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester (metalaxyl).
W.R. Miller and R.E. McDonald
Low-dose irradiation (0.15 kGy) of grapefruit is reportedly a viable quarantine treatment for pests such as Caribbean fruit fly larvae, and is expected to be approved soon for use by the U.S. citrus industry. For the application of ionizing gamma irradiation to be efficacious for all fruit treated on commercial pallet units, fruit will likely require doses 3 to 4 times the required minimum dosage. Grapefruit peel is known to be slightly injured at 0.3 kGy, and can be seriously injured at 0.6 kGy but no peel injury is allowed for U.S. #1 grade fruit. A forced-air vaporheat treatment at 38°C for 2 hours reduced the severity and incidence of grapefruit peel injury by irradiation at doses to 1.0 kGy. The heat treatment reduced the incidence of peel injury at 0.5 and 1.0 kGy by about 50% and 21%, respectively. No other quality or condition attribute was affected by the combination treatment of heat and irradiation. Peel injury was not reduced however by pretreatment with thiabendazole (TBZ) at 1000 ppm or 4000 ppm, or a combination of 1000 ppm each of TBZ and imazalil. A combination treatment of heat before irradiation may allow for doses higher than attainable without heat during the application of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of grapefruit.
David Obenland, Dennis Margosan, Sue Collin, James Sievert, Kent Fjeld, Mary Lu Arpaia, James Thompson, and David Slaughter
following day the fruit were washed and waxed with Sta-Fresh® 2210 (FMC, Philadelphia) with 2000 μL·L −1 imazalil, using the packing line at the University of California Lindcove Research and Extension Center in Exeter, CA (45 miles from the Kearney