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Joseph C. Fetter, Rebecca N. Brown and José A. Amador

Cliff Corp., New Bedford, MA) as described previously by Lian et al. (2005) . Liquid squid fertilizer was prepared by stabilizing the squid hydrolysate through addition of phosphoric acid (85% H 3 PO 4 ) to a final pH of 3.5 (to protect against

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Dianna L. Liu and Nick E. Christians

financial support and supply of corn gluten hydrolysate sample by the Grain Processing Corp., Muscatine, Iowa. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be

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Chenping Xu and Beiquan Mou

bioactive extracts, protein hydrolysates, chitosan and other biopolymers, and beneficial microorganisms ( Calvo et al., 2014 ; du Jardin, 2015 ). PHs consist of oligo and polypeptides and free amino acids obtained through chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis

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Giuseppe Colla, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Paolo Bonini and Youssef Rouphael

research to be beneficial to one or more plant species when applied exogenously.” Beneficial substances such as seaweed extracts (SWEs), particularly the brown algae (Phaeophyceae), protein hydrolysates (PHs) and plant extracts (PEs) have been shown to play

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Carolyn DeMoranville

Productivity in cranberry plots receiving either fish hydrolysate fertilizer or inorganic soluble fertilizer at the same dose has been studied for the past three seasons. In the past two seasons, fish hydrolysate fertilizer (produced from cod frames and stabilized with phosphoric acid) has been used experimentally on a commercial scale. Both series of experiments lead to the conclusion that fish hydrolysate is an acceptable alternative to soluble fertilizer for cranberries. In fact, fish hydrolysate will be included in the University fertilizer guidelines for cranberries to be issued in the spring of 1990. The evidence will be presented along with the arguments in favor of the use of this organic-type material. Continuing lines of research which may lead to increased grower acceptance will be outlined.

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John M. Smagula and Scott Dunham

A commercial lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) field deficient in leaf N and P was used to compare organic and inorganic fertilizers. In a RCB design with eight replications of 12 treatments, experimental plots received 33.6 or 67.2 kg·ha-1 rates of N (urea), P (23% phosphoric acid), N + P (DAP), N + P + K (5-10-5), or N + P + K (fish hydrolysate, 242). Fertilizer containing N alone was as effective in raising N leaf concentrations as those containing N and P. However, leaf P concentrations were raised more by fertilizer providing N and P than only P. Fish hydrolysate fertilizer was as effective as 5-10-5 in raising leaf N, P, and K concentrations in prune and crop year leaf samples. At the 67.2 kg·ha-1 rate, fish hydrolysate, N, NP and NPK increased stem length, N and NP increased flower bud density and fish hydrolysate, N and NPK increased yield compared to the control.

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J.R. Schupp, H.A. Schupp and M.H. Bates

A study was conducted in 1992 at Highmoor Farm, Monmouth, ME to test the effects of fish hydrolysate fertilizer on fruit set, fruit size and fruit quality of apple. Mature, semi-dwarf `Delicious' and `Golden Delicious' trees received 2.76g/1 N, supplied by either fish hydrolysate fertilizer or urea, or received no fertilizer (control). Fertilizers were applied via three foliar sprays applied at seven day intervals, beginning at petal fall. Fish hydralysate fertilizer reduced fruit set of `Delicious' and `Golden Delicious'. Foliar urea increased fruit set and yield of 'Golden Delicious'. Neither fertilizer affected mineral nutrient concentrations of leaves collected in July. Fish hydrolysate increased fruit russeting on both cultivars. Fish hydrolysate is not recommended as a foliar fertilizer for apples.

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Craig A. Dilley, Gail R. Nonnecke and Nick E. Christians

Corn gluten meal (CGM), a by-product of corn wet-milling, has weed control properties and is a N source. The weed control properties of CGM have been identified in previous studies. The hydrolysate is a water soluble, concentrated extract of CGM that contains between 10% to 14% N. Our objective was to investigate corn gluten hydrolysate as a weed control product and N source in `Jewel' strawberry production. The field experiment was a randomized complete block with a factorial arrangement of treatments with four replications. Treatments included application of granular CGM, CGM hydrolysate, urea, urea and DCPA (Dacthal), and a control (no application). Granular CGM and urea were incorporated into the soil at a depth of 2.5 cm with N at 0, 29, 59, and 88 g/plot. Plot size was 1 × 3 m. Percent weed cover data on 12 Aug. showed plots receiving the 29 g N from CGM hydrolysate had 48% less weed cover than the control (0 g). Plant growth variables showed similar numbers of runners and runner plants among all nitrogen sources.

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Craig A. Dilley, Gail R. Nonnecke and Nick E. Christians

Alternative approaches to strawberry production that rely on cultural practices, biological controls, or natural products to reduce or replace off-farm chemical inputs are needed. Driving this growing interest are environmental concerns and rising production costs. Corn gluten meal (CGM), a byproduct of corn wet-milling, has weed-control properties and is a N source. The weed control properties of CGM have been identified in previous studies. The hydrolysate is a water-soluble, concentrated extract of CGM that contains between 10% to 14% N. Our objective was to investigate corn gluten hydrolysate as a weed control product and N source in `Jewel' strawberry production. The field experiment was a randomized complete block with a factorial arrangement of treatments and four replications. Treatments included application of granular CGM, CGM hydrolysate, urea, urea, and DCPA (Dacthal), and a control (no application). Granular CGM and urea were incorporated into the soil at a depth of 2.5 cm at rates of 0, 29, 59, and 88 g N/plot. Plot size was 1 × 3 m. The field experiment was conducted from 1995-1998. The source of nitrogen showed few effects for all variables measuring yield and weed control for all years. In general, the rate of nitrogen had little or no effect on total yield. However, the rate of nitrogen at 88 g N/plot showed an increase in average berry weight, leaf area, leaf dry weight, and weed control.

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Javier Polo, Rubén Barroso, Jesús Ródenas, Joaquín Azcón-Bieto, Rafaela Cáceres and Oriol Marfà

The effects of different kinds of biotic and abiotic stress on crops can be lessened through exogenous application of different biostimulant products. Although some of these products come from enzymatic hydrolysates derived from animal remains, the literature does not contain references to the use of enzymatic hydrolysates obtained from animal hemoglobin, specifically porcine blood. With the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of a product obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of porcine hemoglobin (PHH) as a biostimulant that lessens the effects of thermal stress, two experiments were carried out in which lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa) were subjected to short-term episodes of intense cold and heat. After these episodes, different doses of the PHH product were administered into the growing medium. Moreover, in the heat episode experiment, one group of plants was first subjected to a heat episode and then administered a commercial biostimulant with the aim of comparing its efficacy with the PHH product. The biometric measurements carried out on the lettuce plants several days after being subjected to the episodes of cold and heat and then either administered or not administered the indicated treatments show that at the highest tested dose, the PHH product promoted a reaction that lessened the harmful effects caused by the intense cold and heat treatments.