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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Santosh Shiwakoti, Tess Astatkie, Ivan Salamon, Daniela Grul'ová, Silvia Mudrencekova and Vicki Schlegel

America ( Atanassova and Nedkov, 2004 ; Azeez, 2008 ; Deepak, 2003 ; Gohari and Saeidnia, 2011 ). The EO of cumin seed may be extracted by steam or hydrodistillation ( Atanassova and Nedkov, 2004 ; Beis et al., 2000 ; Topalov, 1962 ). However, since

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Denys J. Charles and James E. Simon

Essential oils were extracted from leaves, flowers, and stems of Ocimum basilicurn, O. kilimandscharicum, and O. micranthum by solvent extraction, hydrodistillation, and steam distillation for essential oil content and the oil analyzed by GC and GC/MS for composition. While the yield of essential oil was consistently higher from steam distillation than hydrodistillation, a similar number of compounds was recovered from both hydrodistillation and steam distillation. Though the relative concentration of the major constituents was similar by both methods, the absolute amounts were higher with steam distillation. Essential oil content and composition varied by plant species and plant part. Essential oil content was highest in flowers for O. basilicum and in leaves for O. micranthum. No significant differences were observed in essential oil yield and relative concentration of major constituents using fresh or dry samples and using samples from 75 g to 10 g of dry plant tissue. While minor differences between hydrodistillation and steam distillation were observed, both methods resulted in high yields and good recovery of essential oil constituents. Hydrodistillation is a more-rapid and simpler technique than steam and permits the extraction of essential oil where steam is not accessible.

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Noelle J. Fuller, Ronald B. Pegg, James Affolter and David Berle

, 276072, 276074, 276075, 276076, 276077, 276079, 276080, 276081, 276083, and 276085). Hydrodistillation. To extract the essential oils, a Clevenger trap (Wilmad-LabGlass, Kingsport, TN) for oils lighter than water was used ( Clevenger, 1928 ). A

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Bahlebi K. Eiasu, Ntombekhaya Matafeni, Viwe Dyafta and Kenias Chigwaya

steam-distillation, hydro-distillation, or both techniques. Motsa et al. (2006) describes geranium oil has fine rose-, citrus-, and mint-like odors. Market value of geranium oil is governed by the quality and quantity supplied. The major constituents

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B.H. Alkire and J.E. Simon

An experimental steam distillation unit has been designed, built, and tested for the extraction of essential oils from peppermint and spearmint. The unit, using a 130-gal (510-liter) distillation tank, is intermediate in size between laboratory-scale extractors and commercial-sized distilleries, yet provides oil in sufficient quantity for industrial evaluation. The entire apparatus-a diesel-fuel-fired boiler, extraction vessel, condenser, and oil collector-is trailer-mounted, making it transportable to commercial farms or research stations. Percentage yields of oil per dry weight from the unit were slightly less than from laboratory hydrodistillations, but oil quality and terpene composition were similar.

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Denys J. Charles and James E. Simon

The curry plant [Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don in Loudon ssp. italicum or H. angustifolium (Lam.) DC (Asteraceae)], a popular ornamental herb with a curry-like aroma, was chemically evaluated to identify the essential oil constituents responsible for its aroma. Leaves and flowers from greenhouse-grown plants were harvested at full bloom. Essential oils were extracted from the dried leaves via hydrodistillation and the chemical constituents analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry. The essential oil content was 0.67% (v/w). Sixteen compounds were identified in the oil and included: neryl acetate (51.4%), pinene (17.2%), eudesmol (6.9%), geranyl propionate (3.8%),β-eudesmol (1.8%), limonene (1.7%), and camphene (1.6%). While the aroma of the curry plant is similar to that of a mild curry powder, the volatile chemical profile of the curry plant does not resemble that reported for commercial curry mixtures.

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Mostafa Farajpour, Mohsen Ebrahimi, Amin Baghizadeh and Mostafa Aalifar

of each sample was extracted by hydro-distillation (1:5 biomass:water ratio) in a 2-L Clevenger-type apparatus for 3 h. The oils were collected from the top of the apparatus using syringe. Yields of essential oils were calculated based on air

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie and Vicki Schlegel

through steam distillation ( Kula et al., 2007 ; Topalov, 1962 ), although other extraction methods such as hydrodistillation, CO 2 extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction have been reported ( Gaspar and Leeke, 2004 ; Karakaya et al., 2011

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Orapin Kerdchoechuen, Natta Laohakunjit, Sasathorn Singkornard and Frank B. Matta

plant material was washed, air-dried, and sliced into small pieces before subjecting to hydrodistillation using the modified Clevenger apparatus for simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). Samples were mixed with 500 mL water and filtered. The volume

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Natta Laohakunjit, Orapin Kerdchoechuen, Frank B. Matta, Juan L. Silva and William E. Holmes

et al., 1998 ), hydrodistillation in African pear ( Jirovetz et al., 2005 ), and continuous liquid–liquid extraction in pineapple fruit ( Elss et al., 2005 ). Sample preparation such as extraction and isolation of analysis greatly influences the