strategies such as hydrocooling ( Sargent et al., 2017 ) can be used to reduce the microbial load on the surface of fruit that presents an increased risk of cross-contamination and reduction in quality ( Sreedharan et al., 2015 ; Tokarskyy et al., 2015
Jaysankar De, Aswathy Sreedharan, You Li, Alan Gutierrez, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Steven A. Sargent and Keith R. Schneider
Peter M.A. Toivonen
sweet cherries is an important practice to ensure delivery of good quality at the market place ( Mattheis and Fellman, 2004 ). All sweet cherry packing lines incorporate hydrocooling to reduce fruit temperature before packing within several minutes
Marcelo A.G. Carnelossi, Edinaldo O.A. Sena, Adrian D. Berry and Steven A. Sargent
, and potentially lowering the price. Hydrocooling stands out as a cooling technology in which fruit is exposed to chilled, sanitized water by immersion or spraying; the cooling time usually takes a few minutes, depending on the size of the product
S.L. Gillies and P.M.A. Toivonen
The effects of cooling method and packaging with perforated film on broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Italica group) quality during 2C storage were studied. Broccoli was either room-cooled, top-iced, or hydrocooled before being placing into storage for 14 days. Hydrocooling was the most rapid cooling method and resulted in the lowest vapor pressure deficits between the broccoli and the surrounding air. Hydrocooling and top-icing resulted in similar firmness and color retention. Broccoli that was hydrocooled and then overwrapped with perforated film lost less weight, was firmest, and retained color better than either top-iced or room-cooled broccoli.
Marcos D. Ferreira, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Steven A. Sargent and Craig K. Chandler
Hydrocooling was evaluated as an alternative to forced-air cooling for strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit. `Sweet Charlie' strawberries were cooled by forced-air and hydrocooling to 4 °C and held in different storage regimes in three different trials. Quality attributes, including surface color, firmness, weight loss, soluble solids, and ascorbic acid content, pH and total titratable acidity, were evaluated at the full ripe stage. Fruit hydrocooled to 4 °C and stored at different temperatures for 8 or 15 days showed overall better quality than forced-air cooled fruit, with significant differences in epidermal color, weight loss, and incidence and severity of decay. Fruit stored wrapped in polyvinylchloride (PVC) film after forced-air cooling or hydrocooling retained better color, lost less weight, and retained greater firmness than fruit stored uncovered, but usually had increased decay. There is potential for using hydrocooling as a cooling method for strawberries.
M.D. Ferreira, J.K. Brecht, S.A. Sargent and C.K. Chandler
`Sweet Charlie' strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) harvested at full ripe stage were 7/8-cooled by forced-air or hydrocooling to 4C, then held with or without a PVC film wrap in one of three storage regimes: 1) 7 days at 1C plus 1 day at 20C; 2) 7 days at 1C plus 7 days at 7C plus 1 day at 20C, or; 3) 7 days at 1C plus 5 days at 15C plus 2 days at 7C plus 1 day at 20C. Quality attributes, including surface color, firmness, weight loss, soluble solids and ascorbic acid content, pH, and titratable acidity, were evaluated after storage. Hydrocooled berries were better in overall quality, with better color retention, less weight loss, and lower incidence and severity of decay compared to forced-air-cooled berries. Strawberries wrapped in PVC film retained better color and had less weight loss and greater firmness, but greater incidence and severity of decay than berries stored uncovered. These results indicate good potential for using hydrocooling as a cooling method for strawberries.
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., cv. Mariner) was harvested and the crop divided into four treatments; 1) “hydrocooled + no wrap”, 2) “hydrocooled + wrap”, 3) “not hydrocooled + no wrap”, and 4) “not hydrocooled + wrap.” Microperforated film (SM60, CryoVac) was used for the wrapped treatments. The broccoli was then placed in 1C storage. On day 3, samples of each of the four treatments were removed from storage and placed into a 13C room to simulate shelf conditions. Visual quality, weight loss, and respiration were monitored over 5 days at 13C. This shelf evaluation was repeated with broccoli samples that had been stored for 10 and 17 days at 1C. Hydrocooling had the greatest effect on shelf performance when broccoli was held in storage for only a few days. However, after a week or more of storage, wrap had the greatest effect on shelf performance. The shelf performance of the “hydrocooled + wrap” treatment was similar for all three shelf evaluations (i.e., after 3, 10, and 17 days of storage). The shelf performance of the other three treatments had significantly deteriorated by the 1st or 2nd week of storage. Broccoli in the “hydrocooled + wrap” treatment maintained the greatest firmness and the lowest respiration and water loss rates. Yellowing was not found to be a problem until a high degree of wilting had occurred. These results show that, with hydrocooling and wrapping, poststorage shelf performance of broccoli is stable for at least 2 weeks of storage at 1C.
Jeffrey K. Brecht, Steven A. Sargent and L. A. Risse
Snap beans were room cooled (RC) or forced-air cooled (FA) in a 4.5°C commercial cold storage room, or hydrocooled (HC) in a commercial flume-type unit with 4°C water containing 175 ppm NaOCl. The beans were packed in wirebound wooden crates (WC) or waxed corrugated fiberboard cartons (FC) before (RC, FA) or after (HC) precooking and stored one week at 10°C before evaluation. Ascorbic acid, chlorophyll and fiber contents did not differ among treatments, while moisture content and per cent unshrivelled beans were lowest in FA and highest in HC, and lower in WC than in FC containers. HC reduced development of mechanical damage symptoms (browning) and decay compared to RC and FA. The former effect was attributable to the presence of NaOCl rather than leaching or increased cooling rate in HC. HC beans packed in FC had the highest per cent sound beans and lowest per cent beans showing mechanical damage symptoms of all the treatment combinations tested.
Marcos D. Ferreira, Steven A. Sargent, Jeffrey K. Brecht and Craig K. Chandler
) reported that strawberries subjected to compression after hydrocooling exhibited an increase in firmness and skin toughness as the temperature was decreased. They also reported a similar response for strawberries that came from the field on cold days
Jorge A. Osuna-Garcia, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Donald J. Huber and Yolanda Nolasco-Gonzalez
, without 1-MCP), 2) 1-MCP control (1-MCP applied to fruit without QHWT), 3) hydrothermal control (only QHWT without hydrocooling), 4) 1-MCP before QHWT without hydrocooling, 5) 1-MCP after QHWT without hydrocooling, and 6) 1-MCP after QHWT + hydrocooling