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Bhimanagouda S. Patil, Kevin Crosby, David Byrne, and Kendal Hirschi

resistance. The improvement of food security to improve human health requires a paradigm shift in plant breeding to integrate nutrition ( DellaPenna, 1999 ). This will require coordination of scientists involved in plant breeding, human health, and

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Irwin L. Goldman

improving human health. More than simply a public relations problem for vegetables, this situation hints at some of the deeper and more complex aspects of the connection between crops and health functionality. FUNCTIONAL FOODS Functional foods have been

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Usha R. Palaniswamy

Vegetarianism dates back to a time before recorded history and, as many anthropologists believe, most early humans ate primarily plant foods, being more gatherers than hunters. Human diets may be adopted for a variety of reasons, including political, esthetic, moral, environmental and economic concerns, religious beliefs, and a desire to consume a more healthy diet. A major factor influencing the vegetarianism movement in the present time is primarily associated with better health. Epidemiologic data support the association between high intake of vegetables and fruit and low risk of chronic diseases and provide evidence to the profound and long-term health benefits of a primarily vegetarian diet. Vegetables and fruit are rich sources of nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber as well as biologically active nonnutrient compounds that have a complementary and often multiple mechanisms of actions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, and hypolipidemic properties, and mechanisms that stimulate the human immune system. Because of the critical link established between diet and health, consumers have begun to view food as a means of self-care for health promotion and disease prevention. Functional foods are targeted to address specific health concerns, such as high cholesterol or high blood sugar levels, to obtain a desired health benefit. Functional properties identified in a number of plant species have led to a modern day renaissance for the vegetarian movement.

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James W. Anderson

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Bhimanagouda S. Patil, G.K. Jayaprakasha, and Amit Vikram

on human health by conducting cohort and randomized controlled human clinical trials. Fig. 5. Bioactive compounds of Amaranthus spp. ( A ) Amaranthine, ( B ) Riboflavin, ( C ) Catechin, ( D ) Procyanidin. CLUSTER BEAN ( CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA L

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Ron Buescher, Luke Howard, and Pat Dexter

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Todd C. Wehner, Rachel P. Naegele, and Penelope Perkins-Veazie

lycopene analysis. Phytonutrient content was analyzed at the Plants for Human Health Institute, NC Research Campus NCSU, Kannapolis, NC. Lycopene was measured using a Hunter Plus colorimeter (Hunter, NJ). Total lycopene content was determined as mg·kg −1

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David M. Olszyk, Tamotsu Shiroyama, Jeffrey M. Novak, Keri B. Cantrell, Gilbert Sigua, Donald W. Watts, and Mark G. Johnson

of healthy food is the concentration of trace nutrients ( White and Brown, 2010 ). Inadequacy of trace nutrients in food has been a developing human health issue ( Roy et al., 2006 ), with K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, I, Se, and Cu most commonly inadequate in

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Tim D. Davis and Purwiyatno Hariyadi

) regarding human health and nutrition, there is a general need to diversify Indonesian diets, which are based largely on rice, to include more fruits and vegetables ( FAO, 2003 ); 2) horticultural crops generally require less land area than other crops and