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Thomas H. Spreen, Jean-Paul Baldwin, and Stephen H. Futch

Huanglongbing is a bacterial disease of citrus that until recently was confined to Asia and Africa. In 2004, the first discovery of the disease in the Western Hemisphere was in Sao Paulo, Brazil. In 2005, the disease was first discovered in Florida

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Ed Stover, David G. Hall, Jude Grosser, Barrett Gruber, and Gloria A. Moore

The disease huanglongbing has devastated the Florida citrus industry. Yields of the 2017–18 cropping season were reduced 75% compared with the peak observed since HLB was first found in Florida ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2018a , 2018b ). HLB

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Kim D. Bowman and Greg McCollum

are infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), the believed causal agent of huanglongbing disease (HLB). All five rootstocks, when grafted with common commercial citrus scions, produce medium-sized trees and appear adapted to production

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Craig Brodersen, Cody Narciso, Mary Reed, and Ed Etxeberria

insufficient carbohydrate flow to sustain the synthesis of starch in a basipetal direction and to support the growth of developing twigs, lower branches, and fruit. Fig. 1. Production of healthy fruit by an Huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus tree. Subtending

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Madhulika Sagaram and Jacqueline K. Burns

Citrus greening disease or huanglongbing (HLB) causes worldwide crop loss and reduced profitability for citrus growers ( da Graça, 1991 ). HLB is believed to be caused by a fastidious phloem-limited bacterium that infects nearly all citrus species

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Godfrey P. Miles, Ed Stover, Chandrika Ramadugu, Manjunath L. Keremane, and Richard F. Lee

-source accessions from the National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus and Dates. Trees were evaluated at the USDA Fort Pierce, FL, farm over 2 weeks late October through Nov. 2015, 6 years after planting in an area with severe huanglongbing and natural

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Naveen Kumar, Fnu Kiran, and Ed Etxeberria

Huanglongbing (or citrus greening) has become the most devastating endemic disease in Florida, having infected 80% to 90% of commercial citrus trees ( Albrigo and Stover, 2015 ). The disease is putatively incited by the bacterial pathogen

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Thomas H. Spreen and Marisa L. Zansler

decline in juice yields measured in pounds solids (ps) per box for processed early- and midseason and ‘Valencia’ oranges, experienced a decline of 11% and 12%, respectively, since the 2011–12 season ( Fig. 3 ). Fig. 1. Huanglongbing has had an adverse

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Joseph Krystel, Huawei Liu, John Hartung, and Ed Stover

.mib.2009.07.003 10.1016/j.mib.2009.07.003 Bové, J.M 2006 Huanglongbing: A destructive, newly-emerging, century-old disease of citrus J. Plant Pathol. 88 7 37 doi: 10.4454/jpp.v88i1.828 Capoor, S.P. Rao, D.G. Viswanath, S.M. 1967

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Said A. Hamido, Kelly T. Morgan, and Davie M. Kadyampakeni

study during 2014 and 2015. Fig. 1. Effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) affected and nonaffected sweet orange trees (‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’) on soil total available water content in the top soil [0–30 cm (11.8 inches)] in lysimeters under greenhouse