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David E. Aldous

Thanks to the following people for contributing to this paper: Professor Margaret Burchett, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, Sydney, Margaret Armstrong, Horticultural Therapy Association of Victoria, Cynthia Carson, Department

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Joel Flagler

It has been observed that the process of horticulture can help to heal physical, mental, and social disabilities. Professionally trained horticultural therapists prescribe and administer planting and gardening activities to provide benefits to people of all ages and abilities. Horticultural therapy programs are now commonplace in hospitals, geriatric centers, schools, rehabilitation facilities, community gardens and prisons. One common goal in all of these programs is to help heal, teach and retrain individuals through the use of plants.

As a result of repeated successes, horticulture is being widely accepted as an effective therapeutic tool. Research is underway to measure the effectiveness of horticultural therapy in clinical and correctional settings. Databases are being developed to document and substantiate the beneficial effects of horticulture on human well-being. With such research results we can better understand the value of horticultural therapy in the recovery and rehabilitation processes.

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Leigh Anne Starling, Tina Marie Waliczek, Rebecca Haller, Beverly J. Brown, René Malone, and Stephen Mitrione

practitioners must be able to perform safely and competently at the time of licensure or certification” ( Chinn and Hertz, 2010 ). Previous literature on horticultural therapy job analysis has focused on gathering demographic data and exploring relationships

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Joel S. Flagler

Horticultural therapy programs can benefit from the services of Master Gardeners. Trained through the U.S. Cooperative Extension Service, Master Gardeners are skilled in practical plant sciences and committed to volunteerism. A nationwide survey has determined that 374 Master Gardeners in 21 states are helping to bring structured horticultural activities to individuals in nursing homes, hospitals, rehabilitation centers, prisons, and other special service facilities.

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Derrick R. Stowell, J. Mark Fly, William E. Klingeman, Caula A. Beyl, Angela J. Wozencroft, Douglas L. Airhart, and P.J. Snodgrass

Horticultural therapy (HT) is an allied health profession that uses people–plant connections to enhance health care outcomes and improve well-being ( Ascencio, 2018 ; Haller et al., 2019 ; Im et al., 2018 ). Other allied health professions

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Hui He, Tingting Li, Fan Zhou, Qianjun Yang, Luyun Hu, and Yanwei Yu

and Nebraska, 2014 ). Horticultural therapy is defined as complementary and alternative treatment provided by trained professionals who use horticulture-related tasks to help improve or recover the health of patients ( Oh et al., 2018

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Hui He, Yanwei Yu, Jiamin Li, Luyun Hu, and Fan Zhou

Traditional horticultural therapy and diseases. Horticultural therapy is a practice led by trained professionals who use gardening and other tasks to help improve the health of patients. It was used in ancient China and Egypt and emerged before

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Bo-Young Kim, Sin-Ae Park, Jong-Eun Song, and Ki-Cheol Son

for outdoor activities was equipped with water lines and was 13.23 m 2 in size. Horticultural therapy program. The purpose of the HT program was to improve attention and sociality of children with intellectual disabilities. Skinner’s behavior

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Choong-Ki Lee, Sin-Ae Park, James W. Mjelde, Tae-Kyun Kim, and Jae-Hwan Cho

Horticultural therapy (HT) is the use of gardening-related activities to help achieve treatment and rehabilitation goals ( American Horticultural Therapy Association, n.d. ). Gardening benefits include improved physical and psychosocial health

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A-Young Lee, Sin-Ae Park, Hye-Gyeong Park, and Ki-Cheol Son

tasks such as sit to stand, stepping, and stooping are repeatedly performed to recover dynamic balance ( Dean et al., 2007 ; McCloskey and Bulecheck, 2000 ; Rensink et al., 2009 ). Horticultural therapy uses horticultural activities for clients with