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David E. Aldous

Thanks to the following people for contributing to this paper: Professor Margaret Burchett, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, Sydney, Margaret Armstrong, Horticultural Therapy Association of Victoria, Cynthia Carson, Department

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Joel Flagler

It has been observed that the process of horticulture can help to heal physical, mental, and social disabilities. Professionally trained horticultural therapists prescribe and administer planting and gardening activities to provide benefits to people of all ages and abilities. Horticultural therapy programs are now commonplace in hospitals, geriatric centers, schools, rehabilitation facilities, community gardens and prisons. One common goal in all of these programs is to help heal, teach and retrain individuals through the use of plants.

As a result of repeated successes, horticulture is being widely accepted as an effective therapeutic tool. Research is underway to measure the effectiveness of horticultural therapy in clinical and correctional settings. Databases are being developed to document and substantiate the beneficial effects of horticulture on human well-being. With such research results we can better understand the value of horticultural therapy in the recovery and rehabilitation processes.

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Leigh Anne Starling, Tina Marie Waliczek, Rebecca Haller, Beverly J. Brown, René Malone and Stephen Mitrione

practitioners must be able to perform safely and competently at the time of licensure or certification” ( Chinn and Hertz, 2010 ). Previous literature on horticultural therapy job analysis has focused on gathering demographic data and exploring relationships

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Joel S. Flagler

Horticultural therapy programs can benefit from the services of Master Gardeners. Trained through the U.S. Cooperative Extension Service, Master Gardeners are skilled in practical plant sciences and committed to volunteerism. A nationwide survey has determined that 374 Master Gardeners in 21 states are helping to bring structured horticultural activities to individuals in nursing homes, hospitals, rehabilitation centers, prisons, and other special service facilities.

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Bo-Young Kim, Sin-Ae Park, Jong-Eun Song and Ki-Cheol Son

for outdoor activities was equipped with water lines and was 13.23 m 2 in size. Horticultural therapy program. The purpose of the HT program was to improve attention and sociality of children with intellectual disabilities. Skinner’s behavior

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Choong-Ki Lee, Sin-Ae Park, James W. Mjelde, Tae-Kyun Kim and Jae-Hwan Cho

Horticultural therapy (HT) is the use of gardening-related activities to help achieve treatment and rehabilitation goals ( American Horticultural Therapy Association, n.d. ). Gardening benefits include improved physical and psychosocial health

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A-Young Lee, Sin-Ae Park, Hye-Gyeong Park and Ki-Cheol Son

tasks such as sit to stand, stepping, and stooping are repeatedly performed to recover dynamic balance ( Dean et al., 2007 ; McCloskey and Bulecheck, 2000 ; Rensink et al., 2009 ). Horticultural therapy uses horticultural activities for clients with

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Shannon E. Jarrott, Hye Ran Kwack and Diane Relf

Horticultural therapy (HT) is used across the lifespan with individuals with a wide range of physical, social, and cognitive abilities. Older adults make up a large group of participants in horticultural activities. As the population of older adults grows, more adults face the risk of experiencing a dementing illness. Many families turn to institutional care programs, such as nursing homes and adult day service (ADS) programs, for assistance with the care of their relative with dementia. HT may be an appropriate activity to incorporate into dementia care activity programs, but formal evaluations of such programs are limited. The current study evaluated a 10-week HT program conducted with adults with dementia at an ADS program. Observations indicated that participants engaged in the horticultural activities for greater periods of time than the nonhorticultural activities. Participant affect during the horticultural and nonhorticultural activities was comparable. HT is appropriate for dementia care programs serving adults with a wide range of cognitive, physical, and social needs, and it should be considered as a viable alternative to more typical dementia care program activities.

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Mary L. Predny and Diane Relf

This report examines the behavior of elderly adults and preschool children during horticultural therapy (HT) activities to determine if combining intergenerational groups would complement or detract from the HT goals for each group separately. During a 10-week observation period, data were collected on video documenting attendance, participation time and pattern during separate age group and intergenerational activities. These data were used to determine if interactions changed over time or in response to different activities. Participation appeared to be affected by activity design, difficulty level, individual ability, and availability of assistance from volunteers. Children's participation during separate age group activities appeared to be affected mainly by the difficulty level and activity design. Elderly adults' participation during separate age group activities appeared to be affected by individual ability limitation and availability of assistance. Children's intergenerational participation scores appeared to show an increase in the category of “working with direct assistance”, while elderly adults' intergenerational scores appeared to show an increase in the categories of “no participation” and “independent participation”. In part, the change in intergenerational participation appeared to be due to a decrease in assistance available from volunteers for each individual. For some individuals, the introduction of intergenerational groups appeared to detract from personal participation in horticulture activities. If the goal of the HT is directly related to the individual's activity in horticulture (i.e., increased self-esteem from successfully designing and building a terrarium), the intergenerational element appears to reduce the potential for that benefit. The percentage of total social interaction time between the generations during activities increased over time. The intergenerational activities involving plant-based activities seemed to be more successful at increasing intergenerational exchange than the craft-type activities. Therefore, horticulture may be a useful activity for programs with a goal of increased intergenerational interaction.

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Sin-Ae Park, Sae-Room Oh, Kwan-Suk Lee and Ki-Cheol Son

that a horticultural activity can specifically improve a certain muscle part of human body is fundamental and useful information and can be applied to developing horticultural therapy program. Consistently low EMG values in most of the horticultural