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Vincent M. Russo and James Shrefler

. Shrefler et al. (2011) used hoop houses to produce spring transplants of bulb onions ( A . cepa L. Cepa group). Although not completely analogous, it was determined that onions could be grown to bunching onion size over winter in Oklahoma using this type

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Rolston St. Hilaire, Theodore W. Sammis and John G. Mexal

construct a greenhouse is a potential gap in many horticulture curricula. In contrast, field hoop houses average less than $1.5/ft 2 , thereby overcoming the financial limitation of building a greenhouse. Also, hoop houses are relatively easy to construct

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Mark E. Uchanski, Kulbhushan Grover, Dawn VanLeeuwen and Ryan Goss

) also found that students in outdoor settings learn better than those in indoor settings. High tunnels, hereafter referred to as hoop houses, are temporary plastic-covered structures used to extend the growing season by keeping the temperatures

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Emmanuel Alves Dos Santos Hecher, Constance L. Falk, Juliette Enfield, Steven J. Guldan and Mark E. Uchanski

Often called hoop houses, high tunnels are constructed by stretching a layer of polyethylene plastic over hoops of metal or polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Most high tunnels rely on passive ventilation through roll-up sides, large doors, or removable end

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William J. Lamont Jr

High tunnels have been used for many years worldwide, but in the United States, the utilization of high tunnel technology for the production of horticultural crops is a relatively recent phenomenon. Single and multibay high tunnels are used throughout the world to extend the production season. One big advantage of high tunnels in the temperate and tropical regions of the world is the exclusion of rain, thus reducing the amount of disease pressure and crop loss while improving crop quality and shelf life. In temperate regions of the world, high tunnels are used to increase temperatures for crop production in spring, fall, and sometimes winter seasons. The use of high tunnels in their many forms continues to increase worldwide, and many different kinds of vegetables, small fruit, tree fruit, and flowers are being cultivated. One impediment in determining high tunnel usage worldwide is the failure of many authors and agricultural census takers to distinguish between high tunnels and plastic-covered greenhouses. In many instances, they are presented together under the heading “protected cultivation.”

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Karen L. Panter, Timmothy M. Gergeni, Casey P. Seals and Andrea R. Garfinkel

High tunnels are gaining popularity for their use in horticultural crop production. However, little is known about the effect of high tunnel orientation on plant growth and development. In this set of studies, we show tunnel orientation does not necessarily affect the production of cut sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and culinary herbs oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), and garlic chive (Allium tuberosum). Two high tunnels, one with the long axis oriented north-south (NS) and the other east-west (EW), were used to test the effects of high tunnel orientation on several crops over a 5-year period: cut sunflower (2012 and 2016); marjoram, oregano, and garlic chive (2013 and 2014); and garlic chive (2015). The tunnels are 12 × 16 ft, smaller than those used in commercial production. The size would be appropriate for hobby and seasonal production of horticultural crops for local markets. Cut sunflower stems were similar lengths both years in both high tunnels. Sunflower times to harvest were different between cultivars but not between high tunnels. Oregano fresh weight yields were highest in the NS tunnel in 2013 but similar between tunnels in 2014. Marjoram fresh weights were highest in 2013 in the EW tunnel but highest in 2014 in the NS tunnel. Garlic chive fresh weights were similar between tunnels all 3 years. We show that differences are more a function of innate cultivar characteristics than which way small high tunnels are oriented.

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Şemsettin Kulaç, Pascal Nzokou, Deniz Guney, Bert Michael Cregg and Ibrahim Turna

. Material and Methods The study was conducted in four hoop houses running east to west at the Tree Research Center (lat. 42.65° N, long. 84.42° W) on the campus of Michigan State University. The hoop houses were designed to keep rain from falling directly on

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Desire Djidonou and Daniel I. Leskovar

commercially grown lettuce cultivars in response to N concentrations during three consecutive production seasons in an NFT hydroponic system. Materials and Methods Plant source and seedling production. The study was carried out in an unheated hoop house located

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H.S. Costa, K.L. Robb and C.A. Wilen

A field study was conducted to assess the effect of various commercially available polyethylene plastic greenhouse coverings on the persistence of viable spores of the microbial insecticide Beauveria bassiana. Selected coverings blocked the transmission of UV light with wavelengths of 360 nm and below or 380 nm and below. Two coverings also contained an infrared blocking component. A commercial formulation of B. bassiana was applied for 3 consecutive weeks to plants growing in the plastic covered hoop houses. The percentage of viable spores was calculated up to 13 days after the final application. The persistence of viable B. bassiana spores was significantly longer under the plastic that blocked a greater portion of the UV spectrum (<380 nm) than the plastics that only blocked UV wavelengths below 360 nm. One week after application, percentage of spore germination was at least twice as high under the <380 nm blocking plastic compared to <360 nm blocking plastics.