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Supriyo Basak, Guangyan Wang, Xudong Sun, and Yongping Yang

., 2015 ) hypothesized that higher GS plants adapt better in high altitudes than lower GS plants. However, the results of some studies are inconsistent with this hypothesis ( Guo et al., 2016 ). For instance, Bennett et al. (1982) indicated that lower GS

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Samantha R. Nobes, Karen L. Panter, and Randa Jabbour

et al., 2012 ). Open-field production of cut flowers occurs in areas where year-round production is feasible, such as Hawaii, Florida, and California ( Bonarriva, 2003 ). Cut flower production in short-season, high-altitude environments, like

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Tong Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Qi Qiao, Wei Liu, and Xiaogai Hou

experimental area, namely, traditional open field cultivation (150 m), sunny slope cultivation (150 m), shady slope cultivation (150 m), understory intercropping (150 m), and high-altitude cultivation (810 m). Some artificial measures were performed to remove

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Fan Li, Guoxian Wang, Rongpei Yu, Min Wu, Qinli Shan, Lifang Wu, Jiwei Ruan, and Chunmei Yang

the effects of different planting seasons on the growth and development of Gypsophila paniculata during the natural photoperiod of a low-latitude and high-altitude region. In general, different planting seasons had a significant impact on the plant

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Givago Coutinho, Rafael Pio, Filipe Bittencourt Machado de Souza, Daniela da Hora Farias, Adriano Teodoro Bruzi, and Paulo Henrique Sales Guimarães

State, the municipality of Lavras, Brazil. The Köppen climate classification of the study region is Cwa (lat. 21°14′S, long. 45°00′W; average altitude, 918 m), which indicates a high-altitude tropical climate with cold and dry winters and warm and moist

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David H. Suchoff, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Heike W. Sederoff, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Matthew D. Kleinhenz, Frank J. Louws, and Christopher C. Gunter

much as $0.16 more per pound of field-grown tomatoes in March than in June ( USDA ERS, 2018 ). High-altitude wild tomato relatives exist that are more tolerant to suboptimal temperatures than cultivated S. lycopersicum ( Venema et al., 1999

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Loong-sheng Chang, Chun-yen Yeh, and Chien-hwa Liao

Race 1 of Plasmodiophora brassica isolated from high altitude of vegetable production district induced clubroot on cabbage, and Chinese cabbage. Inoculation of race from northwestern coast of Taiwan resulted clubroot of Chinese cabbage neither in cabbage. The addition of bark slag or silica slag significantly decreased clubroot infection and increased the weight of Chinese cabbage in the infected field. The addition of 3 gram slaked lime +1 gram KC1 +1.78 gram ammonium sulfate + 1 gram calcium superphosphate at 500 gram soil 2 month after transplanting increased dry wight of cabbage and decreased infection root hair followed by inoculation of race 1.

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Santosh Shiwakoti, Henry Y. Sintim, Shital Poudyal, Jennifer Bufalo, Charles L. Cantrell, Tess Astatkie, Ekaterina Jeliazkova, Lyn Ciampa, and Valtcho D. Zheljazkov

Japanese cornmint, also known as menthol mint (Mentha canadensis L. syn M. arvensis L.), is an essential oil crop cultivated in several countries in Asia and South America. The plant is currently the only commercially viable source for natural menthol as a result of the high concentration of menthol in the oil compared with other crops. The hypothesis of this study was that harvesting at regular intervals within a 24-hour period would have an effect on essential oil concentration and composition of Japanese cornmint grown at high altitude in northern Wyoming. Flowering plants were harvested every 2 hours on 7 to 8 Aug. and on 14 to 15 Aug. and the essential oil was extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The effects of harvest date (Harvest 1 and Harvest 2) and harvest time (12 times within a 24-hour period) were significant on oil concentration and yield of menthol, but only harvest date was significant on the concentration of menthol in the oil. The interaction effect of harvest date and harvest time was significant on water content and on the concentrations of menthol and menthofuran in the oil and on the yield of limonene, menthol, and menthofuran. Overall, the oil concentration in grams per 100 g dried material for the two harvests (1.26 and 1.45, respectively), the concentration of menthol in the oil (67.2% and 72.9%, respectively), and menthol yield (1066 to 849 mg/100 g dried biomass) were higher in plants at Harvest 2 as compared with plants at Harvest 1. The oil concentration was higher in plants harvested at 1100 hr or at 1300 hr and lowest in the plants harvested at 1500 hr. Menthol yield was the highest in plants harvested at 1300 hr and lowest in the plants harvested at 0700 hr, 1900 hr, or at 0300 hr. This study demonstrated that harvesting time within a 24-hour period and harvest date (maturity of the crop) may affect essential oil concentration and composition of Japanese cornmint grown at high altitude in northern Wyoming.

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Benoît Bertrand, Hervé Etienne, and Albertus Eskes

In order to avoid nematode damage to roots of Coffea arabica L. in Latin America, a common practice is interspecific grafting on C. canephora var. Robusta (Pierre) rootstocks. The performance of two C. arabica cultivars, `Caturra' and `Catimor T5175', was evaluated on four rootstocks: C. canephora var. Robusta (`T3561' and `T3757') and C. liberica var. liberica (Hiern) and var. dewevrei (Lebrun), over 5 years in a trial at 1180 m elevation in Costa Rica. Nongrafted plants of the two Arabica cultivars were used as controls. Mortality of plants grafted on the two C. liberica cvs. was >20% vs. 6% to 13% for plants grafted on C. canephora, and 3% to 4% for the two controls. Analysis of accumulated yields over four harvests showed that the rootstocks limited stem girth and reduced yield 10% to 48%. Yield on the C. canephora rootstock was greater than that on the two C. liberica cultivars. However, grafting did not affect female fertility (peaberries, empty berries) or content of several chemicals, such as caffeine, fat, and sucrose. The two C. liberica rootstocks significantly reduced aroma and bean size. Histological studies revealed symptoms of incompatibility, characterized by more dilated and less distinct growth rings and appearance of plugged vascular connections. The poor performance of the rootstocks may therefore be explained by partial incompatibility. However, growth and productivity were also affected by poor adaptations of C. canephora, C. liberica, and C. dewevrei to the lower temperature at high altitudes and by morphological differences in the root systems. These results emphasize the need to develop better adapted rootstock cultivars from C. canephora var. Robusta.

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Hsin-Shan Lin and Jia-Shing Lin

Taiwan, located in subtropic regions, naturally is not an ideal region for temperate-zone fruit trees' production due to the supra-optimum temperature, heavy rainfall, and higher relative humidity in summer and insufficient chilling in winter. Higher relative humidity and temperature in summer and autumn months cause excessive vegetative growth, resulting in poor flowerbud initiation and formation. Typhoon invasions result in the severe damage of twigs as well as the loss of quality and yield of fruits. In order to overcome these natural barriers, Hengshan (Pyrus serotina Rehd.) pear has been selected as a major cultivar for lowlands in Taiwan. It has low-chilling requirement and higher temperature tolerance. Branches of Hengshan are pulled and tied to a horizontal wire net to adapt to the environmental status. This trellis system enhances flowerbud initiation through the retardation of vegetative growth. It also induces numerous water shoots. Scions from high-chilling cultivars grown at a high altitude on mountains are grafted onto water shoots of Hengshan pear trees. The system has been successful in the production of both high-chilling pears in June and the Hengshan pears in August, and has made production of both pears an important industry in Taiwan. Heavy load and trellis systems, however, result in hastening the senescence of Hengshan trees. Vitality of trees could be restored by grafting scions from a vigorous cultivar, P. koehnei, onto the terminal position of the branches. The practice resulted in several advantages including: 1) uniform growth of branches, 2) redistribution of water shoots, 3) inducing formation of calluses on old damaged trunks, 4) quick recovery of mealybug-damaged branches, 5) rejuvenation of branches, and 6) termination of dormancy.