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Linsey A. Newton and Erik S. Runkle

flowers develop. The objective of this study was to determine how short or moderate periods of high temperatures each day influence flowering of mature Phalaenopsis orchids. By providing a high day temperature during the vegetative stage, commercial

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Qin Yang, Er Liu, Yan Fu, Fuqiang Yuan, Tingting Zhang, and Shu Peng

( Zhang et al., 2015 ). However, extreme high-temperature events are becoming more frequent in south China as a result of increasing temperature and climatic variability, particularly during the flowering phenophase, thereby influencing cultivation ( Yang

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Xi Shan, Heng Zhou, Ting Sang, Sheng Shu, Jin Sun, and Shirong Guo

High temperature is one of the major abiotic factors limiting global agricultural productivity. High temperature directly affects plant physiological and biochemical processes and indirectly changes the growth patterns of plants, reducing plant

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Warley M. Nascimento, Jairo V. Vieira, Giovani O. Silva, Kathleen R. Reitsma, and Daniel J. Cantliffe

Carrot crops are established by direct seeding, and poor stands may occur when sowing is done during extremely low or high temperatures. Many publications relate the negative effects of low temperature on carrot stand establishment ( Cantliffe and

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Jing Tian, Li-Ping Wang, Yan-Juan Yang, Jin Sun, and Shi-Rong Guo

resulting from high-temperature stress ( Liu and Huang, 2000 ). Consequently, the evolution of all aerobic organisms has been dependent on the development of efficient ROS-scavenging mechanisms ( Mittler et al., 2004 ). Traditionally, reactive oxygen

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Ockert Greyvenstein, Terri Starman, Brent Pemberton, Genhua Niu, and David Byrne

). High temperature stress is a major limiting factor to growing agronomic and horticultural crops worldwide ( Wahid et al., 2007 ). High temperature stress, the rise in temperature beyond a threshold level for a period of time sufficient to cause

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Dongfeng Liu, Junbei Ni, Ruiyuan Wu, and Yuanwen Teng

expanded in southern China. Pear production has become an important component of deciduous fruit production in this region. However, with global warming, the increasing frequency and duration of extreme high temperature in summer have negatively impacted

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Mark W. Farnham and Thomas Bjorkman

breeding a vegetable for adaptation to high temperatures. In particular, we focus on how these questions were addressed as this breeding effort was initiated and as it has developed over time. WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF THE ABIOTIC STRESS ON THE CROP TO BE

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Francisco E. Loayza, Michael T. Masarirambi, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Steven A. Sargent, and Charles A. Sims

typical summer days of 2019 ( National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2020 ). Under this climatic condition, tomatoes are most likely to be exposed to high temperatures in the field and hence during harvest. Thus, this is a problematic situation

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Yanjiao Zheng, Zaiqiang Yang, Chao Xu, Lin Wang, Haijing Huang, and Shiqiong Yang

Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is native to the western plateau of South America, it adapts to the dry and cool climate of the highland near the equator of the origin, so it is not resistant to high temperature and humidity ( Harel et al