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Jing Mao, Hongliang Xu, Caixia Guo, Jun Tong, Yanfang Dong, Dongyun Xu, Fazhi Chen, and Yuan Zhou

As global warming intensifies, the high-temperature stress response of plants has become a key research topic worldwide ( Wahid et al., 2007 ). High-temperature stress often causes a series of morphological, physiochemical, and genetic changes in

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John Jifon, Kevin Crosby, and Daniel Leskovar

High temperature stress is a major limitation to commercial production of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) in tropical and subtropical regions. The ability to sustain physiological activity under stress is an important trait for newer varieties. We evaluated leaf thermotolerance [based on the cell membrane stability (CMS) test] of three habanero pepper varieties to: 1) determine genetic variability in CMS among the genotypes studied; and 2) to assess correlations between CMS, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence [(CF), an indicator of membrane-dependent photosystem II quantum efficiency, ΦPSII]. The genotypes evaluated were TAM Mild Habanero (TMH, a recently developed mild habanero pepper) and its closely related parents (Yucatan and PI 543184). Net CO2 assimilation rate (An) of intact leaves was measured in the field and leaf samples collected and exposed to heat stress (55 °C for 20 min) in temperature-controlled water baths under dim light conditions. The CF was assessed before and after the heat treatment. The CMS was highest in PI 543184, lowest in TMH and intermediate in Yucatan. All genotypes maintained high An rates in the field (25 ± 6 μmol·m-2·s-1); however, correlations between An and CMS were weak. The Φ values were similar among the genotypes (∼0.8) under nonstress conditions, but differed significantly following stress exposure. PI 543184 had the highest post-stress ΦPSII values (0.506 ± 0.023), followed by Yucatan (0.442 ± 0.023) and TMH (0.190 ± 0.025). Observed differences in CMS and ΦPSII indicate plasticity in the response to heat stress among these genotypes.

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M. Oren-Shamir and Dela Gal

Changes in temperature during rose flower development, often cause a significant fading of flower color, decreasing its market value. We are studying the effect of transient high temperature stress on red roses (Rosa ×hybrida, `Jaguar'). We have found that a transient temperature stress of 39/18 °C day/night respectively for 3 days, in comparison to the growth temperature of 26/18 °C, caused a significant fading to flower color at a mature bud stage. The plant organ responsible for color fading is the flower bud only. When the stress was applied to the whole plant, not including the flower buds, there was no change on the mature bud color. We have also shown that there are specific flower developmental stages sensitive to the transient increase in temperature. Flower buds at the critical stage of development, that have been exposed to temperature increase have a faded pink-red color when matured. Total anthocyanin levels of faded flowers, due to temperature stress, decreased to ≈50%. In addition, the ratio between the two anthocyanidins composing the red color, cyanidin and pelargonidin, changed dramatically due to the temperature stress: flowers on plants that have not overcome a temperature stress had a ration of 1:1, while those that have faded due to the temperature stress have a ration of 2:1 of pelargonidin to cyanidin, respectively. These findings hint to specific stages of anthocyanin synthesis, that are hypersensitive to increased temperature. We are now in the process of identifying and characterizing these stages.

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Nadine Ledesma and Nobuo Sugiyama

The effects of high-temperature stress on pollen viability and in vitro and in vivo germinability were studied in two facultative, short-day strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.), `Nyoho' and `Toyonoka.' Plants were exposed to two day/night temperature regimes of either 23 °C/18 °C (control) or 30 °C/25 °C (high temperature) from when the first inflorescence became visible until anthesis. Pollen viability in `Nyoho' was only slightly affected at 30 °C/25 °C when compared with pollen from plants grown at 23 °C/18 °C. In `Toyonoka', however, pollen viability was significantly lower at 30 °C/25 °C than at 23 °C/18 °C. The in vitro germination percentages were significantly lower in pollen from plants grown at 30 °C/25 °C and germinated at 30 °C than from plants grown at 23 °C/18 °C and germinated at 23 °C in both cultivars. But the percentages were much lower in `Toyonoka' than in `Nyoho', particularly at the 30 °C germination temperature. Pollen from plants grown at 23 °C/18 °C also extended longer pollen tubes than pollen grown at 30 °C/25 °C in both cultivars, but `Nyoho' had longer pollen tubes than `Toyonoka' at 30 °C/25 °C. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that most of the `Nyoho' pollen germinated on the stamen, elongated through the style and reached the ovule regardless of temperature treatment. In `Toyonoka', pollen germination and elongation were greatly inhibited at 30 °C/25 °C, resulting in unfertilized ovules. These results suggest that certain strawberry cultivars produce heat-tolerant pollen, which in turn could result in higher fruit set.

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Karl J. Sauter, David W. Davis, Paul H. Li, and I.S. Wallerstein

Yield in common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., can be significantly reduced by high temperature (I-IT) during bloom. Ethylene production from plant tissue increases as a consequence of various stresses, including heat stress. The inheritance of leaf ethylene evolution rate (EER) of HT-stressed (35/30C day/night) progenies from crosses among bean genotypes previously categorized as HT sensitive or tolerant, based on cell electrolyte leakage, was investigated. Evidence from generation means analysis of Fl, F2, and backcross progenies shows EER to be genetically controlled, with additive, dominance, and epistatic effects indicated for low EER. The range (0.62 to 2.52 μg-1·hr-1) of EER from field-grown lines and cultivars suggests the existence of considerable genetic variability. EER was associated (r = –0.70) with heat tolerance, as estimated by cell electrolyte; leakage.

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Susan Lurie and Joshua D. Klein

Mature-green tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit, when kept for 3 days at 36, 38, or 40C before being kept at 2C for 3 weeks, did not develop chilling injury, while unheated fruit placed at 2C immediately after harvest did. When removed from 2 to 20C, the heated tomatoes had lower levels of K+ leakage and a higher phospholipid content than unheated fruit. Sterol levels were similar in heated and unheated fruit while malonaldehyde concentration was higher in heated fruit at transfer to 20C. The unheated tomatoes remained green, and brown areas developed under the peel; their rate of CO2 evolution was high and decreased sharply, while ethylene evolution was low and increased at 20C. In contrast, the heat-treated tomatoes ripened normally although more slowly than freshly harvested tomatoes: color developed normally, chlorophyll disappeared, and lycopene content increased, CO2, and ethylene evolution increased to a climacteric peak and K+ leakage increased with time. During prestorage heating, heat-stress ethylene production was inhibited, protein synthesis was depressed, and heat-shock proteins accumulated. There appears to be a relationship between the “heat shock response” and the protection of tomato fruit from low-temperature injury.

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Yanjiao Zheng, Zaiqiang Yang, Chao Xu, Lin Wang, Haijing Huang, and Shiqiong Yang

substantial increase in inside air temperature, 20 to 30 °C higher than the outside ( Shamshiri et al., 2017a ). At this time, high temperature has become an important limiting factor for horticultural tomatoes. High temperature stress causes poor pollination

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Charles J. Wasonga, Marcial A. Pastor-Corrales, Timothy G. Porch, and Phillip D. Griffiths

increased or sustained productivity under elevated temperature conditions. Genetic improvement of snap bean for tolerance to high-temperature stress is a promising option for increasing yield and quality in heat-stressed environments ( Porch and Jahn, 2001

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F. Todd Lasseigne, Stuart L. Warren, Frank A. Blazich, and Thomas G. Ranney

.C. Kramer P.J. Adaptation of plants to water and high temperature stress Wiley New York Burke, J.J. 1990 High temperature stress and adaptations in crops 295 309 Alscher R.G. Cumming J.R. Stress

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Xi Shan, Heng Zhou, Ting Sang, Sheng Shu, Jin Sun, and Shirong Guo

carbohydrate metabolism ( Ruan et al., 2010 ). Several studies have shown that soluble sugars serve as plant protectants under high-temperature stress ( Wahid, 2007 ; Wahid and Close, 2007 ). When Saccharum officenarum is subjected to high-temperature stress