Flower bud differentiation and the flowering habit of durian (Durio zibethinus Murray) `Mon Thong' from budbreak to anthesis were investigated at the Chantaburi Horticultural Research Center in Thailand. Clusters of flower buds appeared at the end of November on primary or secondary scaffold branches near where a flower cluster occurred the previous year. Anatomical observations revealed that the development of floral organs was acropetal; the five fused epicalyx forming a large, elongated envelope enclosing the sepals, petals, stamen and fused multi-carpellate pistil. Floral organ development was completed in early January. The mature flower bud more than doubled in size one day before anthesis, with anthesis starting around 1600 hr and ending ≈1900 hr. The anthers did not dehisce until the completion of flowering. This change induced heterostyly in this cultivar, which promoted out-crossing by reducing the possibility of self-pollination. Aromatic nectar that attracted insects to the flower was secreted during anthesis. This is the first report to have clarified the overall flowering process in durian and provides the basic information for elucidating reproductive biology of durian in future research.
Chitose Honsho, Keizo Yonemori, Akira Sugiura, Songpol Somsri and Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Ed Stover and Eric W. Mercure
Neil O. Anderson and Peter D. Ascher
Lythrum species (Lythraceae), found both in the Old and New Worlds, possess heterostyly (macroscopic differences in anther and style lengths). SI is linked with heterostyly in tristylous L. salicaria, allowing for visual identification of compatibility relationships. Five Minnesota populations of distylous L. alatum (short & long styles/anthers) were examined for fertility and linkage between distyly and SI. Pollen was not inhibited from germination, stigmatic penetration, or stylar growth in compatible crosses. Average cross-compatible seed set for each population was 7-33 seeds/capsule for short- and 27-69 for long-styled plants. With the exception of the Iron Horse Prairie population, there were no significant differences in mean seed set/capsule between genotypes, style morphs, or their interaction for compatible crosses. Zero self seed set predominated, although 0.8±1.8 seeds/capsule were produced by short styles and 1.2 ±2.3 by long styles from Iron Horse Prairie. In those individuals that were SI, pollen tube growth was inhibited following self pollinations.
Wei Zhou, Hong Wang, De-Zhu Li, Jun-Bo Yang and Wei Zhou
heterostyly: Comparative biology, ecology and genetics 3 29 Franklin-Tong V.E. Self-incompatibility in flowering plants Springer Press New York, NY Chen, T. Zhou, R.C. Ge, X.J. Shi, S. 2008
Alan W. Meerow, Tomás Ayala-Silva and Brian M. Irish
.S. 2005 Determination of color and fruit traits of half-sib families of mango ( Mangifera indica L.) Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 118 253 257 Barrett, S.C.H. 1978 Heterostyly in a tropical weed: The reproductive biology of the Turnera ulmifolia complex
Holly A. Little, Rebecca Grumet and James F. Hancock
gene in tobacco led to an alteration in floral structure; the ethylene-insensitive lines exhibited heterostyly with the stigma located above the anthers ( Takada et al., 2005 ). Because heterostyly is viewed as a mechanism to promote outcrossing
Sadiye Hayta, Mark A. Smedley, Jinhong Li, Wendy A. Harwood and Philip M. Gilmartin
. occidentalis Acta Hort. 112 13 20 Barrett, S.C.H. Shore, J.S. 2008 New insights on heterostyly: Comparative biology, ecology and genetics, p. 3–32. In: V.E. Franklin-Tong (ed.). Self-incompatibility in flowering plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg