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De-Kun Dong, Jia-Shu Cao, Kai Shi, and Le-Cheng Liu

Plants in Brassica genus are grown worldwide not only as a well-known vegetable, but also one of the most important sources of edible oil. Heterosis for seed yield, biomass, disease and lodging resistance, oil content, and other agronomic

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Anna L. Hale and Mark W. Farnham

Over the last 3 decades, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica Group) hybrids made by crossing two inbred lines replaced open-pollinated populations to become the predominant type of cultivar. The change to hybrids evolved with little or no understanding of heterosis or hybrid vigor in this crop. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine levels of heterosis expressed by a set of hybrids derived by crossing relatively elite, modern inbreds (n = 9). A total of 36 hybrids formed by crossing nine parents were evaluated for horticultural characters, including head weight, head stem diameter, plant height, plant width (in a row), and maturity (e.g., days from transplant to harvest) in four environments. When averaged across all four environments, roughly half of the hybrids exhibited high parent heterosis for head weight (1 to 30 g) and stem diameter (0.2 to 3.5 cm). Almost all hybrids showed high parent heterosis for plant height (1 to 10 cm) and width (2 to 13 cm). Unlike other traits, there was negative heterosis for maturity, indicating that heterosis for this character in hybrids is expressed as earliness. With modern broccoli inbreds, heterosis for head characteristics appears less important than for traits that measure plant vigor.

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Xiaohua Du, Mengye Wang, Aneta Słomka, and Huichao Liu

profitability ( De, 2017 ; Reimann-Philipp, 1983 ). Heterosis is a phenomenon whereby the phenotype of F 1 hybrids is superior to that of their parents. Intralocus interactions between alleles, complementation of dominant alleles, or interloci epistatic

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Jia Shen, Rob Dirks, and Michael J. Havey

complete diallel mating design. The diallel is a useful tool to estimate the combining abilities of inbreds and heterosis ( Griffing, 1956 ). The general combining ability (GCA) of an inbred is a measure of the average performance of hybrids from crosses

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Fekadu Gurmu, Shimelis Hussein, and Mark Laing

analyses to determine the genetic control of quantitative traits ( Hayman, 1954 , 1958 ; Jinks and Hayman, 1953 ), to assess GCA and SCA effects ( Griffing, 1956a , 1956b ) and to determine heterosis ( Gardner and Eberhart, 1966 ; Gardner, 1967 ). It is

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Pedro Revilla, Pablo Velasco, María Isabel Vales, Rosa Ana Malvar, and Amando Ordás

Field corn (Zea mays L. var. mays) cultivar heterosis could improve sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. rugosa Bonaf) heterotic patterns. Two Spanish field corn (Su) and two sweet corn (su) heterotic patterns have been reported previously. The objective of this study was to determine which sweet × field corn crosses could be used to improve sweet corn heterotic groups. A diallel among three sweet corn cultivars (`Country Gentleman', `Golden Bantam', and `Stowell's Evergreen') that are representative of the variability among modern sweet corn cultivars, and three field corn synthetic cultivars [`EPS6(S)C3', `EPS7(S)C3', and `EPS10'] representing the heterotic patterns involving Spanish field corn, was evaluated for 2 years at two locations in northwestern Spain. Differences in heterosis effects (h jj') and average heterosis (h) were significant for all traits except grain moisture. Differences for cultivar heterosis (h j) and specific heterosis (s jj') were significant for grain yield, plant height, and kernel row number. `EPS6(S)C3' had lower s jj' for yield in crosses to `Golden Bantam' than to `Stowell's Evergreen', while `EPS7(S)C3' had higher s jj' in crosses to `Golden Bantam' than to `Stowell's Evergreen'. The best crosses to establish enhanced sweet corn heterotic patterns involving Spanish maize would be `Golden Bantam' × `EPS6(S)C3' and `Stowell's Evergreen' × `EPS7(S)C3'. New sugary 1 cultivars would require preliminary cycles of intrapopulational recurrent selection for agronomic performance and flavor prior initiating an interpopulational recurrent selection program to enhance heterosis.

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Yayeh Zewdie, Paul W. Bosland, and Robert Steiner

The inheritance of capsaicinoid content was studied in five Capsicum pubescens Ruiz & Pav. genotypes using diallel analysis. General combining ability and specific combining ability effects were significant for all capsaicinoids studied, indicating additive and nonadditive gene actions are present. The association of high capsaicinoid contents with high positive general combining ability of the parents also indicates the predominance of additive gene action in capsaicinoid inheritance. Because of the predominant additive gene effect, recurrent selection would be a good breeding method to increase capsaicinoid level in the population studied. Heterosis was observed in hybrids for some of the capsaicinoids, suggesting that F1 hybrids could also be used to increase capsaicinoid content.

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T.E. Dickert and W.F. Tracy

Heterosis in corn (Zea mays L.) usually results in earlier flowering, larger plants, and increased yield. In extremely early sweet corn the effect of heterosis on flowering time may be reduced or eliminated due to developmental and physiological requirements for vegetative growth before the transition to reproductive phase. The objective of this study was to determine the level of heterosis and the combining ability for flowering time and other agronomic traits in a diallel cross of six very early open-pollinated sweet corn cultivars. The diallel was grown in 1995 and 1996. Hybrids and parents averaged over hybrids differed for silk date, plant height, ear height, 10-ear weight, ear length, and 100-kernel weight but did not differ for row number and ear width. Heterosis for silk date was significant, but the difference between parents and hybrids was very small, 0.5 day. No hybrids were earlier than the earliest parent, and average midparent heterosis was -0.8%. In contrast midparent heterosis was significant and relatively high for 100-kernel weight (10.0%), ear length (12.9%), ear height (8.6%), plant height (9.0%), and 10-ear weight (28.2%). The traits with low heterosis had very high general combining ability/specific combining ability ratios while these ratios were much smaller in traits with high heterosis. Heterosis for many of the traits, including 10-ear weight, was higher than published values. Conversely, heterosis for flowering time was small, compared to other traits in this study and to published values for silk date, indicating that this extremely early germplasm may be at or near the limit for flowering time under the photoperiod and temperatures typical of summer in Madison, Wis. (43.05°N, 89.31°W).

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Christopher S. Cramer and Todd C. Wehner

Currently, both hybrid and inbred pickling cucumber cultivars are being grown commercially in the United States. Heterosis for yield in pickling cucumber has been previously reported. However, heterosis has not been repeatable in other studies. The objective of this study was to determine the existence of heterosis and inbreeding depression for yield in pickling cucumber. Six pickling cucumber inbreds (`Addis', `Clinton', M 12, M 20, `Tiny Dill', `Wisconsin SMR 18') were hybridized to form four F1 hybrid families (`Addis × M 20, `Addis' × `Wis. SMR 18', `Clinton' × M 12, M 20 × `Tiny Dill'). Within each family, F2, BC1A and BC1B generations were also formed. Thirty plants of each generation within each family were grown in 3.1-m plots for four replications in the spring and summer seasons of 1996 at the Horticultural Crops Research Station in Clinton, N.C. Data were collected at once-over harvest for total, marketable, and early yield in terms of number (1000 fruit/ha) and weight (Mg/ha). In addition to yield, a fruit shape rating was collected for each plot. High parent heterosis for yield (total and marketable fruit weight) was only observed for `Addis' × `SMR 18' grown in the summer season. The three other families did not exhibit heterosis for total, marketable, and early yield. Heterosis for shape rating was not observed for any family. `Addis' × `Wis. SMR 18' also exhibited inbreeding depression for total fruit weight, marketable fruit weight, early fruit number, and early fruit weight during the spring season and for marketable fruit number and marketable fruit weight during the summer season.

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Sarah M. Smith and Zhanao Deng

.151 kg, 25.9% greater than the midparent value (0.120 kg) for DW, suggesting the presence of heterosis in the F 1 generation ( Table 3 ). COLE F 1 and COTI F 1 showed 13.8% and 38.1% greater DW than the midparent value, respectively. The heterotic