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Luiz A. Biasi and Patrick J. Conner

, with staminate vines being more common than female vines ( Reimer and Detjen, 1910 ), although a few naturally occurring hermaphroditic vines have been described ( Detjen, 1917 ). The perfect hermaphroditic muscadine flower consists of a normal pistil

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Patrick J. Conner

‘Paulk’ is a hermaphroditic muscadine grape ( Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) with black berries that was released by the University of Georgia (UGA) College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences. ‘Paulk’ produces high yields of large-sized berries

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Maureen M.M. Fitch, Paul H. Moore, Terryl C.W. Leong, Leslie Ann Y. Akashi, Aileen K.F. Yeh, Susan A. White, Amy S. Dela Cruz, Lance T. Santo, Stephen A. Ferreira and Leslie J. Poland

Gynodioecious papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings in commercial cropping systems in Hawaii are typically multiple-planted and thinned upon flowering to a single hermaphrodite because seedlings segregate for sex expression. Use of clonally propagated hermaphrodites would eliminate the over-planting practice and may provide other advantages. Yields of clonally propagated hermaphrodites were compared with single- and multiple-planted seedlings in three fields on two islands in Hawaii. Cloned hermaphrodites were either rooted cuttings or in vitro micropropagated plants. Clonally propagated plants bore ripe fruit 1 to 3 months earlier than thinned seedlings and had significantly higher early and cumulative yields. At each site, cumulative yields of thinned seedlings never reached the same level as those of clonally propagated plants. The yield benefit from clonally propagated plants was greatest at Keaau, the lowest sunlight and least productive test site.

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Maureen M.M. Fitch, Paul H. Moore, Terryl C.W. Leong, Leslie Ann Y. Akashi, Aileen K.F. Yeh, Susan A. White, Amy S. Dela Cruz, Lance T. Santo, Stephen A. Ferreira and Leslie J. Poland

Papaya seedlings segregate for sex expression as females or hermaphrodites. Typically only hermaphrodite fruit are marketed in Hawaii. The agronomic practice of growing multiple seedlings that are later thinned to a single hermaphrodite tree is wasteful of seed, labor, and resources, especially when seed is costly. We compared growth of plants propagated by the clonal methods of micropropagation or rooting vegetative cuttings versus plants initiated as seedlings and transplanted. The seedlings were either single-planted hermaphrodites as identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or multiple-planted, thinned seedlings. The experiments were carried out in three different locations on two islands in Hawaii. Clonally propagated plants were significantly shorter than seedlings and bore flowers earlier and lower on the trunk at all locations. Stem diameter differences were not significant even though plant size was different at planting time. Percentage of trees in bud varied significantly in the third month after transplanting when about 90% of the rooted cuttings and large micropropagated plants had formed flower buds while only one multiple-planted seedling developed a bud. Overall, the clonally propagated plants were more vigorous and earlier bearing than were the seedling plants. There is good potential for adoption of clonal propagation when production becomes efficient enough to compete in price with the current practice of over planting and thinning.

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Patrick Conner, Joann Conner, Paige Catotti, Jennifer Lewter, John R. Clark and Luiz A. Biasi

have 40 chromosomes (2× = 2n = 40), whereas Euvitis have 38 (2× = 2n = 38). Native muscadines are typically dioecious ( Reimer and Detjen, 1910 ), although a few naturally occurring hermaphrodite vines have been described ( Detjen, 1917 ). The perfect

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Jennifer Han, Jan E. Murray, Qingyi Yu, Paul H. Moore and Ray Ming

, riboflavin, iron, and calcium ( Liebman, 1992 ). Papaya is a trioecious species with a pair of nascent sex chromosomes controlling sex type; females are XX, males XY, and hermaphrodites XY h ( Ming et al., 2001 , 2007 ). The sex-determining region of the

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David A. Munter, James J. Luby and Neil O. Anderson

Mabberley, 2003 ). Sexual mechanisms include self-compatible hermaphrodites such as in citron ‘Vozza Vozza’ [ Citrus medica ( Distefano et al., 2012 )], self-incompatible hermaphrodites {e.g., mandarin ‘Clementine’ [ Citrus clementine or Citrus reticulata

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Jason Prothro, Hussein Abdel-Haleem, Eleni Bachlava, Victoria White, Steven Knapp and Cecilia McGregor

), andromonoecious (separate male and hermaphrodite flowers on the same plant), and trimonoecious (separate male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on the same plant) forms are found ( Ferreira et al., 2002 ; Maynard, 2001 ; Robinson and Decker-Walters, 1997

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Richard Manshardt

south as northern Costa Rica ( Manshardt and Zee, 1994 ). Wild papayas are dioecious, and the fruits borne on pistillate plants are small (less than 100 g) and seedy with very little edible flesh. Human selection for self-pollinating hermaphrodite

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Hazel Y. Wetzstein, Weiguang Yi, Justin A. Porter and Nadav Ravid

other pomegranate products. The morphological and histological characterization of pomegranate flowers has been recently described ( Wetzstein et al., 2011a ). Both hermaphroditic (bisexual) and functionally male flowers are on the same plant, a