( Missouri Department of Agriculture, 2017 ). Tomato plants are highly sensitive to dicamba and 2,4-D ( Hemphill and Montgomery, 1981 ; Knezevic et al., 2018 ). Common symptoms of synthetic auxin herbicide injury include epinasty, deformed leaflets, split
Michele R. Warmund, David H. Trinklein, Mark R. Ellersieck, and Reid J. Smeda
Michael Dana, Ricky Kemery, Rosie Lerner, Clark Throssell, Philip Carpenter, Michael Kerper, and Melody Putnam
Damage caused by misapplication of herbicides in landscape management or drift from agricultural fields on to nearby landscape plantings is often difficult to diagnose. Symptoms may vary with herbicide, species that is damaged, and other factors. To address this need, a photo CD-ROM has been developed to help plant damage diagnosticians determine if damage has been caused by herbicides. Fourteen herbicides or herbicide combinations commonly used in turfgrass, landscape, or field crop production applications were applied to 21 taxa of landscape trees, shrubs, groundcovers, or herbaceous perennials. More than 800 photographic transparencies of damage symptoms (representing all 21 taxa and 12 herbicides) were taken, and 457 were selected for storage in the digitized photo CD format for rapid retrieval. In all cases, as damage symptoms were observed, they were photographically recorded using a Nikon FM camera with a 55-mm micro-NIKKOR lens and Fujichrome Velvia transparency film under ambient, sunlit conditions. Species and plant taxa lists are displayed and the CD-ROM is demonstrated.
Harlene Hatterman-Valenti and Paul Mayland
Greenhouse experiments were conducted to compare visible injury from sublethal rates of 2,4-D, dicamba, and a premixed product of 2,4-D + mecoprop + dicamba for eight annual flowers and to describe herbicide injury symptoms for these annual species. Herbicides were applied at rates 0.05×, 0.1×, and 0.2× of their highest labeled rate for turfgrass to simulate spray drift conditions. Visible injury varied between species, herbicide rate, and time after herbicide application. Alyssum (Lobularia maritima Desv.) showed the greatest initial injury and ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum Mill.) showed the greatest injury at 4 weeks after treatment. Symptom severity increased as herbicide rate increased, with the greatest injury from the premixed product, followed by 2,4-D, and then dicamba. The eight species varied in their degree of visible injury and flower production to dicamba, 2,4-D, and the premixed product. Reduced flowering was most obvious for prolific flowering species such as alyssum. Impatiens (Impatiens wallerana L.), salvia (Salvia splendens Sello), and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) produced more flowers in response to sublethal dicamba rates compared to the untreated plant. All rates of 2,4-D generally reduced flowering compared to untreated plants, except the lowest rate of 2,4-D for geranium (Pelargonium xhortorum Bailey) and snapdragon. Dahlia (Dahlia hortensis Cav.) sprayed with dicamba at the highest rate produced three times as many stems as plants untreated or those sprayed with 2,4-D. Overall order of species susceptibility to sublethal rates of dicamba, 2,4-D, or the premixed product from most susceptible to least susceptible was ageratum > alyssum > marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) > dahlia > geranium = salvia = snapdragon = impatiens. Differences in overall susceptibility to the plant growth regulator herbicides evaluated should provide useful information to horticulturalists designing annual flower beds and borders and lawn care applicators.
James P. Gilreath, Carlene A. Chase, and Salvadore J. Locascio
Sublethal rates of 2,4-D and dicamba were applied to pepper to evaluate the possible effects of single or multiple exposures to drift from these herbicides. Dicamba induced more foliar injury than did 2,4-D and reduced vigor more as herbicide rates increased. Postbloom applications reduced vigor less than did earlier applications. Epinastic response was affected by stage of development at application and time after treatment. Postbloom applications did not affect yield, but dicamba and 2,4-D applied at earlier stages of development resulted in linear reduction of marketable and total yields as rates increased to 112 g·ha-1. Reductions in plant vigor with increased rates were greater and foliar epinasty was more pronounced with two sequential applications of 2,4-D or dicamba than with single applications. Marketable yields were unaffected by single prebloom applications but declined linearly with two applications. Cull and total yields were not affected by the number of applications. With prebloom and bloom applications of 2,4-D, flower abscission increased and fruit set decreased as rate increased. Chemical names used: 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba); 2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D).
James P. Gilreath, Carlene A. Chase, and Salvadore J. Locascio
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) growth and yield in response to application of sublethal rates of 2,4-D at several developmental stages were evaluated in field studies during two seasons. In Expt. 1, prebloom applications of 2,4-D amine reduced plant vigor and increased foliar epinasty as rates increased from 0 to 112 g·ha-1. Early and total fruit yields also declined linearly as 2,4-D rates increased; 112 g·ha-1 2,4-D reduced early yield by 25% and total yield by 20%. In Expt. 2, plant vigor declined with increasing rates of 2,4-D applied at all four stages of development from first true leaf to early fruit enlargement; however, response at stage 1 differed with time after application. Epinasty increased with 2,4-D rate when applied at all developmental stages; however the severity of the response varied with time after application for stages 1, 2, and 3, but not for stage 4. Averaged over all developmental stages, vine length, fresh weight, and yield decreased linearly as rates increased. Early and total yields with 112 g·ha-1 were 22% and 19% lower than those of nontreated plants, respectively. Growth inhibition and yield decline, pooled across 2,4-D rates, were greater when exposure occurred at the earlier stages of development. Chemical name used: (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D).
J. Scott McElroy and Greg K. Breeden
Siduron and quinclorac provide limited broadleaf weed control during seeded establishment of tall fescue. Carfentrazone and bromoxynil are contact herbicides that act primarily on broadleaf, dicot species. Research was conducted to evaluate tall fescue tolerance to carfentrazone or bromoxynil when integrated into traditional siduron and quinclorac weed control programs. Quinclorac at 0.84 kg·ha–1 applied at seeding followed by quinclorac at 0.84 kg·ha–1 35 days after emergence (DAE) and quinclorac at 1.68 kg·ha–1 plus carfentrazone at 0.034 kg·ha–1 applied DAE were the most injurious to tall fescue 42 and 49 DAE. While quinclorac sequential applications reduced turfgrass groundcover 42 DAE, tall fescue recovered by 49 DAE. Injury from all quinclorac treatments persisted until 63 DAE. Bromoxynil (0.28 or 0.56 kg·ha–1) or carfentrazone (0.017 or 0.034 kg·ha–1) caused minimal injury and no decrease in turfgrass groundcover when applied 35 DAE. While siduron applied at seeding followed by (fb) bromoxynil applied 35 DAE (6.7 fb 0.56 kg·ha–1) caused minimal tall fescue injury, a decrease in groundcover was observed at 49 DAE. No tall fescue cover reduction was observed for any treatment by 63 DAE. These data indicate that bromoxynil and carfentrazone can be safely used during seeded establishment of tall fescue beginning 35 DAE with no long-term effects on turfgrass stand development.
James P. Gilreath, Carlene A. Chase, and Salvadore J. Locascio
Drift from pesticides can kill or damage nontarget organisms. In these studies, the effects of sublethal rates of the herbicide glyphosate applied prebloom, at bloom, and postbloom of the first flower cluster were evaluated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). As rates increased from 1 to 100 g·ha-1, foliar injury and flower and fruit number per plant varied with the stage of development at the time of exposure and the time of evaluation after treatment. Plants treated with 60 and 100 g·ha-1 glyphosate prebloom and at bloom had developed moderate to severe foliar injury by 14 days after treatment, but phytotoxicity to plants treated postbloom was only mild to moderate. Blooms abscised from plants treated with 60 and 100 g·ha-1 glyphosate for several weeks after application and fruit set was reduced. Greatest yield losses occurred following treatment prebloom (just prior to bloom) and at bloom. Plants treated before emergence of flower buds, and more mature plants exposed when first cluster fruit were sizing, yielded better than did those treated just prior to bloom and at bloom. Chemical name used: N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate).
Brian Dintelmann, David Trinklein, and Kevin Bradley
An experiment was conducted in 2017 and 2018 to determine the sensitivity of common garden annuals to sublethal rates of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and dicamba with or without glyphosate. Sublethal rates corresponding to 1/10×, 1/100×, and 1/300× of the full labeled rate (1×) of 2,4-D (1.0 lb/acre), 2,4-D plus glyphosate (1.0 lb/acre plus 1.0 lb/acre), dicamba (0.5 lb/acre), and dicamba plus glyphosate (0.5 lb/acre plus 1.0 lb/acre) were applied to ‘Prelude’ wax begonia (Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum), ‘Wizard’ coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides), ‘Pinto’ zonal geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum), ‘Dazzler’ impatiens (Impatiens walleriana), ‘Bonanza’ french marigold (Tagetes patula), ‘Hurrah’ petunia (Petunia hybrida), ‘Titan’ madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), and ‘Double Zahara’ zinnia (Zinnia marylandica). Visible injury, plant height, number of flowers, and dry weight were recorded at specific time intervals after treatment. When averaged across all annual plant species, the 1/10× rate of 2,4-D plus glyphosate resulted in 51% injury 28 days after treatment, whereas the 1/10× rate of dicamba plus glyphosate resulted in 43% injury. Treatments causing the greatest injury also resulted in the greatest reduction of dry weight, height, and flower production. Coleus was the most sensitive species in the study; dry weight was reduced by 16% and 18% compared with the nontreated controls from 1/300× rates of 2,4-D plus glyphosate and dicamba plus glyphosate, respectively. French marigold and zonal geranium had greater sensitivity to treatments containing 2,4-D, but coleus and zinnia had greater sensitivity to treatments containing dicamba. Petunia exhibited a high tolerance to 2,4-D or dicamba applied alone (>6% injury) but was highly sensitive when glyphosate was added to 2,4-D and dicamba (<65% injury). The 1/100× and 1/300× rates that are likely to equate to sublethal rates in field settings, resulted in less than 15% injury across all flower species except coleus and petunia.
Nader Soltani, Peter H. Sikkema, John Zandstra, John O'Sullivan, and Darren E. Robinson
Topramezone is a newly introduced herbicide for use in field corn (Zea mays L.) that may have potential for weed management in sweet corn. Tolerance of eight sweet corn hybrids to topramezone applied postemergence (POST) at 0, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 300 g a.i. ha− 1 were studied at one Ontario location in 2000 and two locations in 2001 and 2002. Topramezone applied POST at 50, 75, 100, and 150 g·ha− 1 did not cause any visual injury in Calico Belle, CNS 710, Delmonte 2038, FTF 222, FTF 246, GH 2684, Reveille, and Rival sweet corn hybrids at 7 days after treatment (DAT) and caused minimal injury (less than 5%) at 300 g·ha− 1 in all hybrids. The initial sensitivity observed in these hybrids was minimal and transient with no effect on visual injury at 14 and 28 DAT. Topramezone applied POST did not reduce plant height, cob size, or marketable yield of the sweet corn hybrids included in this study. Based on these results, topramezone applied POST at the rates evaluated can be safely applied to Calico Belle, CNS 710, Delmonte 2038, FTF 222, FTF 246, GH 2684, Reveille, and Rival sweet corn.
Sarah R. Sikkema, Nader Soltani, Peter H. Sikkema, and Darren E. Robinson
Pyroxasulfone is an experimental herbicide for use in field corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean that may have potential for weed management in sweet corn. Tolerance of eight sweet corn hybrids to pyroxasulfone applied preemergence (PRE) at rates of 0, 209, and 418 g·ha−1 a.i. were studied at two Ontario locations in 2005 and 2006. Pyroxasulfone applied PRE at 209 and 418 g·ha−1 caused minimal (less than 3%) injury in Harvest Gold, GH2041, GH9589, GSS9299, GG214, GG446, GG763, and GG447 sweet corn hybrids at 7, 14, and 28 days after emergence. Pyroxasulfone applied PRE did not reduce plant height, cob size, or yield of any of the sweet corn hybrids tested in this study. Based on these results, pyroxasulfone applied PRE at the rates evaluated can be safely used for weed management in Harvest Gold, GH2041, GH9589, GSS9299, GG214, GG446, GG763, and GG447 sweet corn.