), pruning, and drying methods are cultural practices which influence the quality of bush tea. Herbal tea quality is measured by metabolites such as tea polyphenols. Polyphenol-rich diets have been linked with prevention of several chronic and degenerative
Maedza V. Khathutshelo, Nkomo Mpumelelo, Ngezimana Wonder and Mudau N. Fhatuwani
Maedza K. Vuwani, Mpumelelo Nkomo, Wonder Ngezimana, Nokwanda P. Makunga and Fhatuwani N. Mudau
, antioxidant capability, antioxidant enzymes and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth Molecules 18 7957 7976 Joubert, E. Gelderblom, W.C.A. Louw, A. de Beer, D. 2008 South African herbal teas: Aspalathus linearis, Cyclopia spp
Fhatuwani N. Mudau, Puffy Soundy and Elsa S. du Toit
Herbal teas have high concentrations of total polyphenols ( Owour et al., 2000 ; Venkatesan et al., 2004 ). Polyphenols are known to posses a wide range of beneficial biochemical and physiological properties ( Hirasawa et al., 2002 ). The major
Shao-chang Qin, Juan-ling Li, Abdul Kareem and Yong Wang
China is one of the major tea-producing nations in the world, and partridge tea is one of the famous herbal teas of Hainan Island due to its many health benefits. It has been reported that partridge tea has antiatherosclerotic effects ( Liu et al
Nixwell Mudau, Puffy Soundy and Elsa du Toit
Bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides) belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is a popular beverage, commonly used as an herbal tea and for medicinal purposes. In some parts of South Africa, people consume or drink it as an aphrodisiac. Bush tea was grown under varying nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) levels in the four seasons to determine the seasonal nutrient requirements for improved quality. Treatment consisted of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500 kg·ha–1 N, P, or K in a randomized complete-block design under 50% shade nets. Three N, P, and K parallel trials were conducted per season (autumn, winter, spring, and summer). Total polyphenols were extracted using Folin-Ciaocalteau reagents and analyzed in a spectrophotometer. Results for the N trial suggested that total polyphenols increased quadratically in response to N nutrition during summer, winter, and spring, but not in autumn. The optimum N level was 300 kg·ha–1. The highest total polyphenol was 51.1 mg·g–1 in winter. For the P trial, total polyphenols also increased quadratically in response to P nutrition regardless of season. Again winter had the highest total polyphenols (46.8 mg·g–1). The optimum P level was 300 kg·ha–1. In the K trial, regardless of season, total polyphenols plateaued at 200 kg·ha–1 and the highest polyphenols were in winter (43.3 mg·g–1). Therefore, for improved total polyphenol content, 300 kg·ha–1 N and P and 200 kg·ha–1 K are recommended regardless of season.
Nixwell F. Mudau, Puffy Soundy and Elsa S. du Toit
Bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides) belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is a popular beverage used as an herbal tea and as medicine for cleansing or purifying the blood, treating boils, headaches, infested wounds, and cuts, and the solutions may also be used as a foam bath. In some parts of South Africa, people drink bush tea for aphrodisiac reasons. Bush tea was grown under varying N, P, and K levels in all four seasons to determine the seasonal nutrient requirements for improved plant growth. Three parallel trials for N, P, or K one at each season were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with six treatments replicated eight times. Treatments consisted of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500 kg·ha–1 N, P, or K. Parameters recorded were plant height, number of branches and leaves, fresh and dry stem mass, fresh and dry root mass, stem girth, fresh and dry shoot mass, leaf area and percentage leaf and root tissue N, P, and K. Results of this study demonstrated that, in all trials regardless of season, N, P, or K nutrition increased bush tea fresh and dry shoot mass, plant height, number of leaves, number of branches and leaf area. Regardless of season, the optimum level of N, P and K fertilization for bush tea on growth parameters was 300 kg·ha-1 N or P and 200 kg·ha-1 for K. No significant differences in number of flowers and buds (fall and winter), stem girth, fresh and dry root mass as well as fresh and dry stem mass were obtained.
Usha Palaniswamy and Zafar Bokhari
The important effect of dietary factors on health status has been recognized since antiquity. Since the discovery of the beneficial effects of dietary phytochemicals and bioactives, a new dimension of foods have emerged in the market. These “functional foods” are being developed by all major food companies and new ones are regularly brought into the market. While developing new functional foods and nutraceuticals, the association and identification of such foods and beverages with traditional foods and medicinal preparations, and/or popular forms of existing products are bound to bring long-standing consumer acceptance, which is an important desirable factor in sales and marketing. Following this concept, Zafi Beverages, Inc., Chicago, is developing a new line of functional products (new herbal teas and energy drinks). Zafiis also introducing a unique marketing and distribution system to create a new team of entrepreneurs, providing an excellent opportunity for growth in sales and marketing to new entrepreneurs. It targets ethnic entrepreneurs by offering an opportunity to use their networking abilities and be part of an exciting new partnership in the new host country, as well as a strategic business plan. The ethnic entrepreneurs are also constantly in contact with their consumers by virtue of the existing ethnic allegiance and cohesion and are able to identify the consumer needs and concerns directly. These small ethnic entrepreneurial networks can be identified as distinct “micro-marketing systems” within the national economy. The advertised market potential for Zafi is summarized to include an offer of immediate cash flow, more revenue and profits, marketing and financial education support, as well as a promising new line of products.
Keletso C. Mohale, Araya T. Hintsa, Machel A. Emanuel and Fhatuwani N. Mudau
Bush tea ( A. phylicoides DC.) is a South African indigenous and traditional herbal tea rich in secondary metabolites, which have therapeutic effects ( Padayachee, 2011 ), pharmacological properties ( McGaw et al., 2007 ), and different phenolic
Fhatuwani N. Mudau, Puffy Soundy and Elsa S. du Toit
herbal teas, such as green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) ( Chiu, 1989 ) and honeybush ( Cyclopia intermedia ) ( Du Toit et al., 1998 ), it is known that quality is related to season. The plant materials of bush tea are only harvested from the wild. Presently
Fhatuwani N. Mudau, Ambani R. Mudau, Mpumelelo Nkomo and Wonder Ngezimana
., 2010 ; Mudau et al., 2007b ); hence the pruning treatments were synchronized as if pruning for tea harvest. Pruning herbal tea plants is an intensive agronomic practice that affects productivity and quality ( Marasha et al., 2013 ). Tea quality is