Hedged stock plants of four full-sib families [27-2 × 27-5, 27-3 × 27-1, 27-2 × 27-1, and 27-6 × 27-1 (designated B, G, R, and W)] of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were fertilized daily with a complete nutrient solution containing N at 10, 25, 40, 55, or 70 mg·L–1. In May, terminal softwood stem cuttings were taken and placed under intermittent mist. Families were combined to form composite poor-rooting (BR) and good-rooting (GW) families. At 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after sticking, cuttings were evaluated for rooting and analyzed for mineral nutrient and carbohydrate content. Percent rooting by week 12 for cuttings from stock plants receiving N between 25 to 70 mg·L–1 was 28% to 33%, whereas significantly fewer (17%) cuttings from plants receiving 10 mg·L–1 had rooted. By week 12, 98% of cuttings taken from stock plants receiving N at 10 mg·L–1 were alive, while significantly fewer (81% and 82%) of the more succulent cuttings receiving 55 and 70 mg·L–1, respectively, had survived. Nearly all increases in cutting height occurred within the first 3 weeks. In contrast, top dry weight increased steadily throughout the experiment. There were no significant differences in rooting between the two composite families until week 12, when 32% of cuttings from family GW had rooted compared with 24% for family BR. Survival of cuttings was greater for the poor-rooting family (BR) (94%) than for the good-rooting family (GW) (82%) after 12 weeks. Levels of total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) and individual soluble sugars were initially higher in cuttings taken from stock plants that received higher rates of N, whereas the reverse was true for starch content. With the exception of sucrose, content of TNC and soluble carbohydrates generally increased over time. Starch was nearly depleted by week 3, but had increased by weeks 6 and 9. No correlation was found between TNC: N ratios and rooting percentage. Family GW contained greater quantities of myo-inositol, glucose, fructose, sucrose, total soluble carbohydrates (TSC), and TNC than did family BR. Mineral nutrient content was generally greater in cuttings taken from stock plants that received higher rates of N; these cuttings also maintained higher levels throughout the 12-week rooting period. As with the soluble carbohydrates, the good-rooting composite family (GW) contained greater amounts of all mineral nutrients than did the poor-rooting family BR.
D. Bradley Rowe, Frank A. Blazich, and Robert J. Weir
Anthony V. LeBude, Frank A. Blazich, and Barry Goldfarb
Experiments conducted in January (hardwood cuttings) and June (softwood cuttings) 1998 compared rooting and root dry weight (DW) of stem cuttings of three full-sib families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) rooted in Jiffy forestry peat pellets and Ray Leach Super Cells. Ray Leach Super Cells (vol.= 162 cm3) served as the control and contained a medium of 2 peat: 3 perlite (v/v). Pellet sizes used were 25-65, 30-65, 36-65, 36-75, 42-65, 42-80, and 50-95 (dry diam.-expanded height in mm). Cuttings were taken from hedged stock plants and rooted for 12 weeks under mist in a humidity-controlled greenhouse. Following evaluation for rooting in the June experiment, ≈500 rooted cuttings in pellets and Ray Leach Super Cells were field-planted in eastern Georgia in December 1998 to study the effect of pellet size and cutting development on first-year field growth. Rooting percentages in January for hardwood cuttings rooted in pellet sizes 42-80 (36%) and 50-95 (57%) were less than the control (83%). Root DW for each pellet size was less than the control. Rooting percentage in June for softwood cuttings rooted in pellet size 36-65 (77%) was greater than the control (64%) whereas rooting percentages for cuttings rooted in pellet sizes 42-80 (50%) and 50-95 (52%) were less than the control. Root DWs for cuttings in pellet sizes 25-65, 30-65, 36-65, and 42-65 were less than the control. Field performance data will be presented.
D.B. Rowe, F.A. Blazich, D.M. Pharr, and F.C. Wise
Containerized, 2.5-year-old, hedged stock plants of four, full-sib families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were fertilized daily with a complete nutrient solution containing 10, 25, 40, 55, or 70 ppm N, which resulted in a range of stock plant soluble carbohydrate (SCHO) and tissue N levels. SCHOs included myo-inositol, glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose. Nitrogen concentrations and SCHO: N ratios ranged from 1.23% to 2.24% and 16:1 to 29:1, respectively. Softwood cuttings were taken in May and July 1995 and placed under intermittent mist. May cuttings rooted at significantly greater percentages than July cuttings (60% vs. 34%). Averaged over all N treatments, the best rooting family (56%) contained the highest tissue concentration of SCHOs (465 mg·g–1 dry weight) and had the highest SCHO: N ratio (26:1), whereas, the poorest rooting family (39%), exhibited the lowest level of SCHOs (357 mg·g–1 dry weight) and the lowest SCHO: N ratio (21:1). Rooting exhibited a quadratic response in regards to N fertilization levels and tissue SCHO concentrations. For both rooting trials, maximum rooting (83%) was noted for May cuttings taken from stock plants of one family fertilized with 40 ppm N, which corresponded to a tissue N concentration of 1.95% and a SCHO: N ratio of 22:1.
Yusef S. Siraj-Ali, Harry K. Tayama, Thomas L. Prince, and Stephen A. Carver
The relationship between poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Kl.) maturity and premature flower bud initiation (splitting) was evaluated. Changes in root growth, phyllotaxy, and heterophylly of `Annette Hegg Dark Red' poinsettia stock plants and cuttings in response to repeated severe pruning (hedging) and the chemical growth regulators gibberellic acid (GA4+7), PBA, or ethephon were evaluated. Cuttings taken from hedged stock plants exhibited a phyllotaxy of 1/3 to 2/5, extensive root growth (characteristics of juvenility in poinsettia), and a low level of splitting (34%). Cuttings taken from nonhedged stock plants exhibited a phyllotaxy of 3/8, reduced root growth (characteristics of maturity in poinsettia), and a high level of splitting 177%). There was a moderate negative correlation (-0.75) between root growth and splitting and a strong positive correlation (0.94) between splitting and phyllotaxy. Cuttings treated with gibberellic acid or PBA exhibited elliptic to ovate leaves (a juvenile characteristic) and levels of splitting ranging from 20% to 90%, depending on concentration and application timing. Untreated cuttings and those treated with ethephon exhibited lobed leaves (an adult characteristic) and levels of splitting ranging from 82% to 100%. Names of the chemical growth regulators were: trihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylenegibb-3-ene-1,10-dicarboxylic acid 1,-4a-lactone (GA4+7); N-(phenylmethyl)-9-)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-9H-purin-6-amine (PBA); (2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid (ethephon).
D.B. Rowe, F.A. Blazich, F.C. Wise, and S.L. Warren
Containerized, 1.5-year-old, hedged stock plants of four full-sib families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were fertilized daily with a complete nutrient solution containing 9 ppm P, 38 ppm K, and either 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 ppm N. Softwood cuttings were removed in May and July 1994, and placed under intermittent mist at two locations: Raleigh and Summerville. Overall rooting was significantly greater at Summerville (49%) than in Raleigh (37%). Cuttings taken in May rooted at significantly greater percentages than the July cuttings (57% vs. 29%). Overall rooting (56%) and root area (12 cm2) were greatest at 40 ppm N, whereas root number (two), root dry weight (66 mg), and total root length (108 cm) were maximized at 20 ppm N. Although family was not significant, a family × nitrogen interaction occurred. For both rooting trials, maximum rooting (83%) was noted for May cuttings rooted in Summerville, which were taken from stock plants of one family fertilized with 20 ppm N.
Anthony V. LeBude*, Barry Goldfarb, and Frank A. Blazich
Producing high quality rooted stem cuttings on a large scale requires precise management of the rooting environment. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the rooting environment on adventitious root formation of stem cuttings of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Hardwood stem cuttings of loblolly pine were collected in Feb. 2002 from hedged stock plants and stored at 4 °C until setting in Apr. 2002. One hundred stem cuttings per plot in each of two replications received 45, 61, 73, 102, 147, or 310 mL·m-2 of mist delivered intermittently by a traveling gantry (boom) system. Mist frequency was similar for all treatments and was related inversely to relative humidity (RH) within the polyethylene covered greenhouse. Rooting tubs in each plot were filled with a substrate of fine silica sand, and substrate water potential was held constant using soil tensiometers that activated a subirrigation system. Cutting water potential was measured destructively on two cuttings per plot beginning at 0500 hr every 3 hh until 2300 hr (seven measurements) 7, 14, 21, or 28 days after setting. During rooting, leaf temperature and RH were recorded in each plot to calculate vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Cutting water potential and VPD were strongly related to mist application. Cutting water potential was also related to VPD. Rooting percentage had a linear and quadratic relationship with mean cutting water potential and VPD averaged between 1000 and 1800 HR. Eighty percent rooting occurred within a range of values for VPD. Data suggest that VPD can be used to manage the water deficit of stem cuttings of loblolly pine to increase rooting percentage. These results may be applicable to other species and to other rooting environments.
Josiah Raymer, Mack Thetford, and Debbie L. Miller
and Grimes, 2005 ). Utilization of hedged stock plants should be evaluated as a method of increasing cutting production. This previous work demonstrates a need to consider not only the effects of fertilization on the number of cuttings produced, but to
Christina M. Twardowski, Jaime L. Crocker, John R. Freeborn, and Holly L. Scoggins
stock plants of loblolly pine. I. Tissue nitrogen concentrations and carbohydrate status New For. 24 1 39 52 Rowe, D.B. Blazich, F.A. Wise, F.C. Goldfarb, B. 2002b Nitrogen nutrition of hedged stock plants of loblolly pine. II. Influence of carbohydrate