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Hanseul Park, Eunhye Ko, and Yeh-Jin Ahn

appear to be because of the experimental conditions used in the studies such as the characteristics of the nanomaterials (type, size, and concentration) and the plants (species and growth stages). Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a group of proteins that

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Yeh-Jin Ahn and Na-Hyun Song

All living organisms synthesize a group of proteins called heat shock proteins (HSPs) when exposed to elevated temperatures or other abiotic stresses such as cold, salinity, drought, oxidation, and heavy metals ( Vierling, 1991 ). These proteins are

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Joohee Lee and Yeh-Jin Ahn

Heat shock proteins are a group of proteins expressed under heat and other abiotic stresses (reviewed in Lindquist and Craig, 1988 ). They are classified into five different families, HSP100, HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, and sHSP (12 to 42 kDa), based on

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Na-Hyun Song and Yeh-Jin Ahn

All organisms studied to date respond to high temperatures by synthesizing a group of proteins known as heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs are divided into five classes based on their molecular weight: HSP100, HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, and small HSPs

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Hanseul Park and Yeh-Jin Ahn

growth. In the present study, we aimed to recombine a small heat shock protein gene, Hsp17.7 , from carrot ( D. carota ‘Mussangochon’) into the E. coli chromosome to increase the tolerance to adverse cultural conditions. Small heat shock proteins

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Robert E. Paull and Chris B. Watkins

Production of heat shock proteins (HSP) in response to high temperatures are a highly recognizable feature of plant and animal systems. It is thought that such proteins play a critical role in survival under supraoptimal temperature conditions. The use of heat treatments has been examined extensively, especially for disinfestation of fruit and disease control. Heat treatments can affect physiological responses, such as ethylene production, softening, and other ripening factors, as well as reducing physiological disorders, including chilling injury. HSPs have been implicated in a number of stress responses, but the extent that they are involved, especially in amelioration of chilling injury, is a subject of debate. In a number of cases, heat shock proteins do not appear to be involved, and HSPs do not explain long-term adaptation to heat; other systems for which we do not have models may be at work. Resolution of these issues may require the use of transgenic plants with modified heat shock responses.

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Seenivasan Natarajan and Jeff Kuehny

Small heat shock proteins (sHSP) are a specific group of highly conserved proteins produced in almost all living organisms under heat stress. These sHSP have been shown to help prevent damage at the biomolecular level in plants. One of the greatest impediments to production of marketable herbaceous plants and their longevity is high temperature stress. The objectives of this experiment were to study the plant responses in terms of sHSP synthesis, single leaf net photosynthesis, total water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and overall growth for two S. splendens cultivars differing in performance under heat stress. `Vista Red' (heat tolerant) and `Sizzler Red' (heat sensitive) were exposed to short duration (3 hours) high temperature stresses of 30, 35, and 40 °C in growth chambers. Increasing the temperature to about 10 to 15 °C above the optimal growth temperature (25 °C, control) induced the synthesis of sHSP 27 in S. splendens. Expression of these proteins was significantly greater in the heat-tolerant vs. the heat-sensitive cultivar. Soluble carbohydrate content was greater in `Vista Red', and in both the cultivars raffinose was the primary soluble carbohydrate in heat-stressed plants. Overall growth of plants was significantly different in the two cultivars studied in terms of plant height, stem thickness, number of days to flower, and marketable quality. The better performance of `Vista Red' under heat stress was attributed to its morphological characteristics, including short stature, thicker stems and leaves. sHSPs and WSC are also found to be associated with heat tolerance and heat adaptation in S. splendens.

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Mark A. Ritenour, Sunita Kochhar, Larry E. Schrader, Tsui-Ping Hsu, and Maurice S.B. Ku

Western immunoblot analyses showed that small heat shock proteins (smHSPs) are low or undetectable in the peel of `Fuji', `Jonagold', `Criterion', `Gala', and `Delicious' apples [(Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] growing shaded within the tree canopy (shade apples), but are high in apples growing exposed to direct sunlight (sun apples). `Fuji', `Jonagold', and `Gala' sun apples sampled biweekly between 1 July and 21 Oct. 1997 were highest in content of smHSPs on 31 July, 13 Aug., and 10 Sept., corresponding to some of the warmest periods of the sampling period. The smHSPs started to disappear first in `Gala', the earliest maturing cultivar, and last in `Fuji', the latest maturing cultivar indicating that maturity might play a role in regulating smHSP accumulation. In sun apple fruit left on trees for 60 to 120 days beyond commercial maturity and exposed to field temperatures as low as -4 °C, a 71.7 ku (u = unified atomic mass unit) polypeptide was detected with a polyclonal antiwheat (Triticum aestivum L.) HSP70 in the peel and cortex of all five cultivars. While no smHSPs were detected in these apples, three smHSPs, as detected by antibodies against pea (Pisum sativum L.) cytosolic HSP18.1, could be induced in the same fruit 24 hours after heating to 45 °C for 4 hours. In `Fuji' shade apples heated at 40 °C, smHSP accumulation was detected after the second hour of a 4-hour heat treatment and continued to increase over the next 48 hours at 22 °C. Levels of HSP70 did not change in `Fuji' shade apples heated at 45 °C for 2, 4, or 6 hours, but smHSPs became detectable immediately after each of these heat treatments and further increased over the next 24 hours at 22 °C. Accumulation of smHSPs was maximal in the 4-hour heat treatment. After a 4-hour heat treatment at 45 °C, smHSPs increased during the next 48 hours at 22 °C and then declined by 72 hours. Using two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis, as many as 17 proteins ranging from 15 to 29 ku were found to accumulate in the peel 48 hours after a 4-hour heat treatment. Thus, apples can respond rapidly to high temperature stress, even at advanced stages of maturity, by synthesizing smHSPs, which likely play an important role in protecting cellular biochemical processes during these periods of stress.

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Sookhee Park and Jiwan P. Palta

High temperature effects potato production by reducing overall growth and partitioning of photosynthate to tubers. Recent studies from our laboratory demonstrated that these effects can be reduced by increasing rhizospheric calcium. This present study was conducted to determine if this mitigation of heat stress effect on potato is due to modulation of heat shock protein by calcium during stress. An inert medium and nutrient delivery system capable of maintaining precise rhizospheric calcium levels were used. Biomass was measured and protein samples were collected from potato leaves. Using electroblotting, heat shock proteins were detected by antibodies to Hsp21 and Hsp70 (obtained from Dr. Elizabeth Vierling). Injury by prolonged heat stress was mitigated at calcium concentration >5 ppm. The calcium concentration of leaf and stem tissues were twice as high in 25 ppm calcium-treated plant compared to 1 ppm calcium-treated plants. Total foliage fresh weight was 33% higher and dry weight 20% higher in plants supplied with 25 ppm of calcium than supplied with 1 ppm of calcium. HSP21 was expressed only at high temperature and at greater concentrations in 25 ppm calcium treatment. HSP70 was expressed in both control, 20 °C/15 °C (day/night) and heat-stressed tissue, 35 °C/25 °C (day/night) under various calcium treatments (1 to 25 ppm). Also, there were some differences in HSPs expression patterns between young and mature leaves. Young tissue responded immediately to the heat stress and started to express HSP21 within 1 day. Mature tissue started to express HSP21 after 2 days. HSP21 of young tissue disappeared sooner than mature tissue when heat stress-treated plants were returned to normal conditions. These results support our earlier studies indicating that an increase in rhizospheric calcium mitigate heat stress effects on the potato plant. Furthermore these results suggest that this mitigation may be due to modulation of HSP21by rhizospheric calcium during heat stress.

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Allan B. Woolf, Asya Wexler, Dov Prusky, Elana Kobiler, and Susan Lurie

Effect of direct sunlight on the postharvest behavior of five avocado (Persea americana Mill.) cultivars (Ettinger, Fuerte, Hass, Horshim and Pinkerton) was examined. Probes placed 6 to 7 mm under the peel showed that the temperature an the side exposed to the sun could be as much as 15 to 20 °C higher than the temperature of shade fruit, while the nonexposed side of the fruit was ≈5 °C higher than the shade fruit. With the exception of `Ettinger', sun fruit, and especially the exposed side, were found to be most tolerant to postharvest 50 and 55 °C hot water treatments. Similarly, storage of fruit at 0 °C for between 3 to 6 weeks caused severe chilling injury to shade fruit, with less effect on sun fruit. Furthermore, there was little or no damage on the exposed side of the sun fruit. During postharvest ripening at 20 °C, sun fruit showed a delay of between 2 to 5 days in their ethylene peak compared with shade fruit. The exposed side of the sun fruit was generally firmer than the nonexposed side, and the average firmness was higher than that of shade fruit. Activities of polygalacturonase and cellulase were similar in shade and sun fruit of similar firmness. After inoculation with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz@sacc., the appearance of lesions on sun fruit occurred 2 to 3 days after shade fruit. Levels of heat-shock proteins were examined using western blotting with antibodies for Class I and II cytoplasmic heat-shock proteins. Class I reacted with proteins from the exposed side of sun fruit and Class II with proteins from both sides of sun fruit. Thus, it is clear that preharvest exposure of fruit to the sun can result in a wide range of postharvest responses.