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Fahrurrozi Aziz, Katrine A. Stewart, and Sylvie Jenni

Field experiments were conducted during 1997, 1998, and 1999 to determine effects of 10 combinations of mulched minitunnel and thermal water tube on air, soil, and water-tube temperatures and on vegetative growth of `Earligold' netted muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. Reticulatus Group) within the tunnels. Use of mulched minitunnels significantly increased air, soil and water temperatures during the preanthesis phase in all years compared with control treatments. Inclusion of water tubes and venting the tunnels decreased air temperature fluctuations in the tunnels. During the first 10 to 15 days after transplanting, plants grown in nonperforated tunnels had higher relative growth rates (RGRs), net assimilation rates (NARs), and dry weights (DWs) than those grown under perforated tunnels and control plots. Plants in tunnels containing thermal water tubes generally had higher RGRs, NARs, and DWs than those without tubes. During the later part of the experiment, from 11 to 16 days after transplanting until anthesis, however, there were no consistent effects of mulched minitunnels on RGR, NAR, and plant DW. Tunneled muskmelons had significantly higher RGRs, but generally lower NARs than those grown without tunnel. Use of mulched minitunnels significantly increased plant DW at anthesis in 1997, but not in 1998 and 1999. Plants grown in the minitunnels containing a thermal water tube generally had higher RGRs, NARs, and DWs than those without water tubes. Ventilating nonperforated tunnels generally increased RGR, NAR, and plant DW. Plants grown in the tunnels reached anthesis 10 days earlier than those without tunnels.

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Bielinski M. Santos and Teresa P. Salame-Donoso

., 1967 ). The principle associated with this practice is called “heat of fusion” and it is described as the heat released by water during the freezing process, where 1 g of water releases 80 calories of heat as it forms ice ( Perry, 2001 ; Snyder, 2001

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Asadolah Aslani Aslamarz, Kourosh Vahdati, Majid Rahemi, Darab Hassani, and Charles Leslie

using thermocouples to measure the heat released by the latent heat of fusion. Another method of determining hardiness is to freeze plants in the laboratory and then evaluate injury by observing tissue discoloration. Usually, freeze-injured tissues

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Lucas McCartney and Mark Lefsrud

protection to the trunk and lower scaffolds to allow trees to overcome effects of severe freezes and allow a faster return to production ( Powell and Himelrick, 2000 ). Heat loss from a plant to the surrounding air and soil can be replaced by the heat

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Larry E. Schrader

isomerization and heat release. These organic (chemical) absorbers include para -aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and PABA esters, salicylates, cinnamates, and many other aromatic compounds. The inorganic agents (minerals) that protect human skin by reflecting and

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E. Barclay Poling

understand with this technique is that the sprinkler system will act as a “heating” system as long as the heat released by water freezing (called the latent heat of fusion) is keeping young grape shoots in a temperature range of –0.27 to 0 °C ( Sugar et al