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Jun Song, Lihua Fan, Charles F. Forney, and Michael A. Jordan

Volatile emissions and chlorophyll fluorescence were investigated as potential signals of heat injury for apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit. `McIntosh', `Cortland', `Jonagold', and `Northern Spy' apples were exposed to 46 °C for 0, 4, 8, or 12 hours (heat treatments). Following treatments, fruit were kept at 20 °C and evaluated after 1, 2, 4, or 7 days. Heat treatments induced volatile production including ethanol and ethyl acetate. The 8 and 12 hours heat treatments increased ethanol and ethyl acetate production in all four cultivars by as much as 170- and 11-fold, respectively, 1 day after treatments. Heat treatments also reduced ethylene production and chlorophyll fluorescence. Heat for 12 hours caused serious flesh browning. Among the cultivars investigated, `Northern Spy' and `McIntosh' were most susceptible to heat stress based on the degree of flesh browning. Correlation coefficients of heat stress induced ethanol emission and chlorophyll fluorescence with flesh browning were 0.82 and -0.66, respectively. The nondestructive measurements of ethanol emission and chlorophyll fluorescence have potential to identify stressed fruit with reduced quality or compromised storage life.

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S.J.R. Underhill and C. Critchley

Mature lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit were heat-treated at 60C for 10 min to study heat-induced pericarp browning. Polyphenol oxidase (EC activity of the pericarp increased immediately, corresponding with rapid anthocyanin degradation, Tissue browning was observed 2 min after heating, with pigmentation distributed uniformly throughout the pericarp. The distribution of brown pigments was different than the highly localized browning observed under ambient desiccation. Although both ambient and heat-induced pericarp browning are visually similar, the anatomical distribution of brown pigmentation is quite distinct. The distribution of brown pigmentation was not consistent with anthocyanin localization. Following ambient desiccation, the mesocarp became colorless even though this represented the greatest concentration of pigment. Browning caused by heating may result from nonselective degradation of a range of compounds, including anthocyanin.

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John M. Ruter

Membrane thermostability of `Needlepoint' Chinese holly (Ilex cornuta Lindl. & Paxt.), `Albo-marginata' English holly (Ilex aquifolium L.), and `Nellie R. Stevens', an Ilex aquifolium × Ilex cornuta hybrid, was determined by measuring electrolyte leakage in excised leaves and roots. The critical midpoint heat-killing temperature (T,) after a 30-min exposure was 54.4 ± 0.4C for `Nellie R. Stevens' leaves and was ≈ lC higher than that for Chinese (52.9 ± 0.3C) or English holly (52.9 ± 0.4C). The Tm for English holly roots (53.9 ±_ 1.5C) was higher than that for either `Nellie R. Stevens' (51.7 ± 0.3C) or Chinese holly (50.1 ± 0.3C). The results of this study suggest that English holly and `Nellie R. Stevens' leaves and roots can withstand direct heat injury equal to or greater than that of Chinese holly.

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Keryl K. Jacobi and Don Gowanlock

Mature green `Kensington' mango fruit were submerged in hot water at 46C until the fruit center reached 45C and then held for 30 minutes. The fruit were allowed to ripen for 7 to 10 days after the hot water treatment, and then damaged areas of skin and mesocarp tissue were prepared for observation by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Heating-related injuries included rupturing the patterned cuticle and exocarp and exposing the underlying cells and hollow cavities (which varied in size and shape) randomly distributed within the mesocarp beneath the skin. Starch deposits still were present in the mesocarp parenchyma cells. The cell walls of damaged mesocarp parenchyma cells were convoluted and thickened in places. The injury suggested disruption of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

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Yali He, Xiaozhong Liu, and Bingru Huang

Various physiological processes may deteriorate in response to increasing temperatures, contributing to the decline in turf quality for cool-season turfgrasses during heat stress. This study was performed to investigate metabolic changes (membrane lipid peroxidation, total protein content, amino acid content, and protease activity) associated with turf quality decline for creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera Huds.) in response to gradually increasing temperatures for a short duration and prolonged exposure to lethally high temperature. Plants were subjected to increasing temperatures of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 °C for 7 days at each level of temperature [gradual heat stress (GHS)] or exposed to high temperature of 40 °C for 28 days [prolonged heat stress (PHS)] in growth chambers. During the GHS treatment, significant decline in turf quality occurred when plants were exposed to 30 °C for 7 days; simultaneously, malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased and total protein content in shoots decreased significantly compared to those at 20 °C. Protease activity increased at 25 °C and then decreased as temperature was elevated from 30 to 40 °C during the GHS treatment. Amino acid content decreased under GHS, beginning at 25 °C. Under the PHS treatment, turf quality declined and MDA content increased significantly, beginning at 14 days of PHS, while total protein content decreased at 7 days of PHS. Protease activity and amino acid content increased at 7 days of PHS, and then declined with longer stress duration. Our results indicated that protease activity, and amino acid and total protein content were more responsive to GHS or PHS than that of lipid peroxidation and turf quality. Changes in metabolic parameters of protease activity, amino acid and total protein content, and lipid peroxidation may contribute to leaf senescence and poor turf performance under severe or prolonged heat stress conditions for creeping bentgrass.

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Lihua Fan, Jun Song, Charles F. Forney, and Michael A. Jordan

Ethanol concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) were measured as signs of heat stress in apple fruit [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. `McIntosh', `Cortland', `Jonagold', and `Northern Spy' apples were placed in trays and exposed to 46 °C for 0, 4, 8, or 12 hours. Following treatments, fruit were stored in air at 0 °C and evaluated after 0, 1, 2, or 3 months. Ethanol and ethylene production, CF, peel and flesh browning, firmness, skin color, soluble solids, and titratable acidity were measured. Increases in ethanol were apparent immediately following 12-hour heat treatments as well as after 3 months. After 3 months, ethanol concentrations were 16-, 52-, 6-, and 60-fold higher in `McIntosh', `Cortland', `Jonagold', and `Northern Spy' apples than in controls, respectively. The concentrations of ethanol accumulated reflected the degree of heat-induced fruit injury. Heat treatments reduced ethylene production relative to control values. After 3 months of storage ethylene production of fruit exposed to 46 °C for 12 h was <0.48 μmol·kg-1·h-1 compared to >4.3 μmol·kg-1·h-1 for controls. Heat treatments also reduced CF which was expressed as Fv/Fm, where Fv is the difference between the maximal and the minimal fluorescence (Fm - Fo), and Fm is the maximal fluorescence. After 3 months storage at 0 °C, Fv/Fm was ≈0.2 in fruit held at 46 °C for 12 hours compared with 0.5-0.6 for control fruit. Exposure to 46 °C for 12 hours caused severe peel and flesh browning in all cultivars. Severity of peel and flesh browning increased with increasing duration of heat treatment and subsequent storage at 0 °C. `Northern Spy' apple fruit were most susceptible to heat stress based on the degree of flesh browning. Heat treatments of 8 and 12 hours reduced firmness of `McIntosh', `Cortland', and `Northern Spy', but not `Jonagold' apples. Hue angle of the green side of fruit was also reduced in `Cortland', Jonagold' and `Northern Spy' apples receiving the 8- and 12-hour treatments. Heat treatments caused a decrease in fruit tiratable acidity, but had no effect on soluble solids content. The increase in ethanol production and decrease in CF correlated with heat-induced injury, and were apparent before browning was visually apparent. Ethanol and CF have the potential to be used to nondestructively predict the severity of injury that develops during storage.

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Robert E. Paull and Nancy Jung Chen

Mesocarp softening during papaya (Carica papaya L.) ripening was impaired by heating at 42C for 30 min followed by 49C for 70 min, with areas of the flesh failing to soften. Disruption of the softening process varied with stage of ripeness and harvest date. The respiratory climacteric and ethylene production were higher and occurred 2 days sooner in the injured fruit than in the noninjured fruit that had been exposed to 49C for only 30 min. Skin degreening and internal carotenoid synthesis were unaffected by the heat treatments. Exposure of ripening fruit to either 42C for 4 hr or 38 to 42C for 1 hr followed by 3 hr at 22C resulted in the development of thermotolerance to exposure to the otherwise injurious heat treatment of 49C for 70 min. Four stainable polypeptide bands increased and seven declined in single-dimensional acrylamide gels following incubation of fruit at the nondamaging temperature of 38C for 2 hr. Three polypeptides showed marked increases when polysomal RNA was translated. These polypeptides had apparent molecular weights of 17, 18, and 70 kDa. Proteins with molecular weights of 46, 54, and 63 kDa had slight increases after heat treatment. The levels of these polypeptides peaked 2 hr after heat treatment and declined within 24 hr. The amount of these polypeptides in the unheated control varied with the batch of fruit. The concentration of three translated polypeptides, with apparent molecular weights of 26, 37, and 46 kDa, declined. Other polypeptides continued to be translated during and after holding papayas for 2 hr at 38C.

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Pavlos Tsouvaltzis, Angelos Deltsidis, and Jeffrey K. Brecht

effect of HW treatment, pre-processing delay, and storage. Means were separated by Duncan's multiple range test at the 0.05 level. Results and Discussion Severe heat injury developed on slices from tubers treated for 30 or 40 min at 55 °C, and therefore

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Elhadi M. Yahia and Dora Ortega

We have shown in research work also presented in this meeting that insecticidal controlled atmospheres at high temperatures are very efficient in causing in vitro mortality of eggs and third instar larvas, and in vivo mortality of third instar larvas of Anastrepha ludens and A. obliqua. In this work we are reporting on their effect on the quality of mango fruit. Fruit of the cultivar `Manila' were exposed to 0% O2 + 50% CO2 at 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, and 49°C and 50% relative humidity for 160 min, after which they were stored at 10 °C for 20 days and evaluated at different intervals. Fruit exposed at 44°C or more had heat injury, while those exposed at 43°C or less did not show any injury and had similar or better quality than the control. On the basis of our previous results on insect mortality and on the resulted fruit quality reported here (heat injury, color, texture, weight loss), we conclude that 0% O2 + 50% CO2 at 43°C or less for 160 min can be used for the control of A. ludens and A. obliqua in mangoes.

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Chien Y. Wang

Mature leaves of kale (Brassica oleracea L., Alboglabra group) and collard (Brassica oleracea L., Acephala group), and Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L., Gemmifera group) were heated by moist air at 40, 45, 50, or 55 °C for durations of 0, 30, 60, or 90 minutes. Heating of kale at 45 °C for 30 minutes was effective in maintaining better postharvest quality, delaying yellowing, and reducing losses of sugars and organic acids during subsequent storage at 15 °C. Exposure of collard at 40 °C for 60 minutes also delayed yellowing and maintained turgidity of the leaves. Other treatments were either less beneficial, not effective, or caused injury. Heat injury occurred when temperature and duration exceeded the tolerance levels. In some cases, heat-injured tissues remained green but developed fungal infection. Heat treatments had no measurable effects on the rate of senescence or storage quality of Brussels sprouts.