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Henry M. Munger

35 COLLOQUIUM 1 Enhancement of Horticultural Crops for Improved Human Health

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Justin R. Morris

81 WORKSHOP 10 Health Functional Fruits and Vegetables

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Gene Lester

81 WORKSHOP 10 Health Functional Fruits and Vegetables

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W. Kalt

81 WORKSHOP 10 Health Functional Fruits and Vegetables

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Usha R. Palaniswamy

Vegetarianism dates back to a time before recorded history and, as many anthropologists believe, most early humans ate primarily plant foods, being more gatherers than hunters. Human diets may be adopted for a variety of reasons, including political, esthetic, moral, environmental and economic concerns, religious beliefs, and a desire to consume a more healthy diet. A major factor influencing the vegetarianism movement in the present time is primarily associated with better health. Epidemiologic data support the association between high intake of vegetables and fruit and low risk of chronic diseases and provide evidence to the profound and long-term health benefits of a primarily vegetarian diet. Vegetables and fruit are rich sources of nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber as well as biologically active nonnutrient compounds that have a complementary and often multiple mechanisms of actions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, and hypolipidemic properties, and mechanisms that stimulate the human immune system. Because of the critical link established between diet and health, consumers have begun to view food as a means of self-care for health promotion and disease prevention. Functional foods are targeted to address specific health concerns, such as high cholesterol or high blood sugar levels, to obtain a desired health benefit. Functional properties identified in a number of plant species have led to a modern day renaissance for the vegetarian movement.

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Ivette Guzman, Krystal Vargas, Francisco Chacon, Calen McKenzie, and Paul W. Bosland

with dietary health-promoting properties and thus have been gaining more attention as a source of pigments for foods and textiles due to their biological activity ( Arimboor et al., 2015 ; Ksibi et al., 2015 ). As chile pepper fruits mature, they

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Willy Kalt and Dominique Dufour

Blueberries (Vaccinium sp.) have a long history of use in native and folk medicine in North America and Europe. Today the European blueberry (bilberry) is used in a variety of pharmaceutical and food supplement products that are recommended for treating blood vessel disorders and ophthalmological conditions. Anthocyanins, the pigments that impart the blue color to blueberries, are considered the active ingredient in bilberry health products, although other related flavonoids are biomedically useful. Vaccinium flavonoids are antioxidants and are also recognized for their anticarcinogenic properties and usefulness in treating urinary tract infections. The most immediate, and perhaps greatest, opportunity for a health market for North American blueberries may be in promoting blueberries as a healthy food. As researchers continue to explore the biomedical usefulness of blueberries, the blueberry food industry should strive to retain the healthful phytochemical in their products.

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Clark Wilson, G.K. Jayaprakasha, and Bhimanagouda Patil

Poster Session 40—Produce Quality, Safety, and Health 30 July 2006, 1:15–2:00 p.m.

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Aime J. Sommerfeld, Tina M. Waliczek, and Jayne M. Zajicek

: 2007 , one in every eight Americans is an older adult (65+ years). It is projected that this population will increase to 40 million people by 2010 with an estimated increase of 36% in the decade leading up to 2020 [ U.S. Department of Health and Human

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Sin-Ae Park, Candice A. Shoemaker, and Mark D. Haub

Regular physical activity (PA) contributes to the prevention and reduction of chronic diseases associated with aging and can help maintain independent living [ American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), 1998 ; Galloway and Jokl, 2000 ]. Health