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Sin-Ae Park, A-Young Lee, Ki-Cheol Son, Wang-Lok Lee, and Dae-Sik Kim

’s social participation ability or social relationships ( Brandtstädter and Greve, 1994 ). Meanwhile, regular physical activity confers health benefits, including the prevention or improvement of chronic health problems related to the physical, psychological

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Martina Göttingerová, Michal Kumšta, and Tomáš Nečas

flowers: Effect on consumer preferences HortScience 37 218 221 Lu, B. Li, M. Yin, R. 2015 Phytochemical content, health benefits, and toxicology of common edible flowers: A review (2000–2015) Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 56 130 148 Lugasi, A. Hovari, J

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Y. Liu, B.S. Patil, H. Ahmad, and D.T. Gardiner

Pectin is a class of complex polysaccharides that function as hydrating agents and cementing materials for the cellulose network. Pectin has various health benefits, such as decreasing serum cholesterol levels, alleviating diabetes mellitus, and preventing cancer. It has been reported that the cancer prevention effect is closely related to the structure of pectin (galactose-rich, molecular weight <10,000, and methylation degree 50% to 70%). This study was conducted to investigate the variation of grapefruit pectin content due to harvest time. `Rio Red' grapefruit on sour orange rootstock grown at Texas A&M Univ.-Kingsville Citrus Center were harvested every 2 months and analyzed for pectin content, galacturonic acid concentration, methylation degree, and neutral sugar composition. Results showed that lamella contains more pectin than flavedo and albedo. In the lamella, the edible section, the uronic acid content ranged from 85% to 90% from August to April the following year. Methylation degree increased from August (31.89%) to April (46.99%). Total neutral sugar content of lamella pectin decreased from 110.54 to 61.77% mg·g -1. Galactose, arabinose, and rhamnose are the major sugar contents of pectin (85%), and glucose content increased with the season from 3.14 to 13.34 mg·g-1. Molecular weight of pectin was also determined.

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Janice M. Blevins and Justin R. Morris

There has been a nationwide explosion of interest in consumption of red wine following a “60 Minutes” television segment entitled “The French Paradox.” The paradox was due to the fact the French consume more fat, smoke more, and exercise less than Americans and still have fewer heart attacks. A study of 12,000 male British doctors showed that moderate drinkers had the lowest death rates and the lowest vascular death rates compared to nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. The consumption of wine has been shown to provide healthful benefits, such as reducing cholesterol and decreasing cardiovascular disease. A comprehensive literature review of the latest scientific information on this subject is presented in this review.

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Hiroyo Mihira, Cathy Sabota, and Ann Warren

Shiitake mushrooms [Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler] have several therapeutic effects such as antibiotic, immunoregulatory, hypocholesterolemic, and hypotensive. Human studies have proven that serum cholesterol can be lowered by consuming shiitake mushrooms on a regular basis. However, few studies have evaluated shiitake mushroom effects for more than a few weeks. In this study, male spontaneously hypertensive rats were divided into six groups. Each group received one of the following diets: 0% cholesterol (C); C + 5% shiitake mushrooms; C + 5% Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach; 1% cholesterol (1C); 1C + 5% shiitake; 1C + 5% A. bisporus. Serum cholesterol was measured at the end of 9 weeks and systolic blood pressure was measured weekly for 6 weeks. At the end of the study, total serum (TC) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol (mg·dL–1) were significantly lower in both of the shiitake diets compared to 1C or 1C + 5% A. bisporus. The total cholesterol for diets 1 through 6 were 44, 34, 36, 71, 34, and 54 mg·dL–1, respectively. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower over the 6-week period for the shiitake and A. bisporus amended diets. The addition of cholesterol to the diets did not significantly affect systolic blood pressure. Results of this study indicate that both shiitake and A. bisporus mushrooms may help reduce hypertension. Shiitake mushrooms may be superior to white mushrooms for hypocholesterolemic effect when cholesterol in the diet is high. The results of this study reinforce other work conducted in Japan on animals and humans. Promotion of shiitake mushrooms as a product that can reduce cholesterol or blood pressure can increase sales if scientific information supports these claims.

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Tripti Vashisth, Mercy A. Olmstead, James Olmstead, and Thomas A. Colquhoun

As consumers learn about the health benefits of fruits ( Prior and Cao, 2000 ), they are demanding fruit with higher antioxidant and phytochemical capacities, as clearly demonstrated by the popularity of fruits ( Gilbert et al., 2014 ; Olmstead et

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Peter J. Mes*, James R. Myers, and Balz Frei

A nutritional study was initiated to determine which carotenoids found in tomato result in decreased lipid oxidation ex vivo. To compare the carotenoids in a human diet without the use of purified supplements, tomatoes expressing nonfunctional enzymes in the carotenoid pathway were used. Tomato lines carrying the genes t, B, ogc, Del, or r were grown to produce fruit containing with high levels of prolycopene, beta-carotene, lycopene, or delta-carotene respectively, or low total carotenoids in r. Juices were processed from these lines and used in a dietary intervention study. Plasma samples were drawn before and after consumption of each juice. These samples were subjected to a battery of tests to analyze the contribution of carotenoids to the total lipid antioxidant status. Results of these tests are discussed.

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Carl J. Rosen and Deborah L. Allan

chelates from compost microorganisms improve Fe nutrition of soybean and oat Plant Soil 200 137 147 Chen, M.C. 2005 Organic fruits and vegetables: Potential health benefits and risks Nutr. Noteworthy 7 Article 2. Clark, M.S. Horwath, W.R. Shennan, C. Scow

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Stanisław Pluta and Edward Żurawicz

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Agnieszka Masny and Edward Żurawicz