Cabbage (cv. Bravo) was grown in 2002 and 2003 at The Ohio State Univ., Ohio Agricultural Research and development Center in Wooster, Ohio. The four irrigation treatments, arranged in a RCB design, were: 1) irrigation throughout development [no stress (NS)], 2) irrigation only during head development [frame stress (FS)], 3) irrigation only during frame development [head stress (HS)], and 4) no irrigation [frame and head stress (FHS)]. Irrigation timing relative to crop stage significantly affected all head characteristics except density, with the greatest differences between cabbage receiving irrigation during head development (NS, FS) and cabbage not irrigated during head development (FHS, HS). On average, heads from NS and FS plots were heavier (38%), larger (15%), less pointed and had less volume occupied by the core than heads from HS and FHS plots. Combined head fructose and glucose concentrations were significantly greater in cabbage receiving irrigation during head development than in cabbage not irrigated during head development (47% vs. 41% dwt, respectively). Sucrose concentrations were significantly greater in cabbage not irrigated during head development than cabbage receiving irrigation during head development (8% vs. 6% dwt, respectively). The higher ratio of sucrose: fructose+glucose observed in HS and FHS relative to NS and FS treatments was interpreted as an osmo-regulatory response with potential implications for cabbage flavor. Overall, it was concluded that physiological responses elicited in cabbage by differential irrigation can affect important head traits, and that targeted applications of water during specific stages of crop development may be utilized to maximize water use efficiency and crop quality.
T.J.K. Radovich*, M.D. Kleinhenz, J.G. Streeter, and M.A. Bennett
Matthew D. Kleinhenz and Annette Wszelaki
Yield and relationships among head traits were recorded in order to better understand the effects of planting date and cultivar selection on crop quality characteristics and to help increase the efficiency of cultivar development, evaluation, and selection. A total of seven cultivars of fresh market-type cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata Group) were planted in May and June of 1999 and 2000 at the OARDC Vegetable Crops Research Branch in Fremont, Ohio. Total and marketable yield, head traits (e.g., size, weight, density), and core dimensions were recorded at harvest. Main effects of year (Y), planting date (PD), and cultivar (C) and the Y × C interaction significantly affected seven to 10 of 10 head and core traits. However, the PD × C interaction was significant for head density, the ratio of head polar and equatorial diameter, and core base width. The Y × PD interaction was significant for six of 10 head and core traits. May planting tended to result in greater yield and larger, heavier heads with greater polar/equatorial diameter values relative to June planting. However, head density was unaffected by planting date. The number of head and core traits affected by planting date differed among cultivars. For example, six of 10 head and core traits were significantly affected by planting date in `Cheers' and `DPSX315' while one trait was affected by planting date in `SuperElite Hybrid'. The weight of numerous, individual, market-ready, trimmed heads showed a strong (avg. R 2 value = 0.92) quadratic relationship to average head diameter. These data suggest that large-scale germplasm evaluations may benefit by including multiple plantings, as head weight, volume, diameter, and shape were affected by planting date, possibly due to variation in temperature and rainfall patterns. The data also suggest that routine measurement of numerous head traits in the same evaluations may be unnecessary, as selected traits (e.g., diameter and weight, head volume, and core volume) were strongly related.
Annette Wszelaki and Matthew D. Kleinhenz
This is the second of two related reports dealing with the effects of cultivar × environment interactions on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata Group) crop traits. This study examined planting date and cultivar effects on physical head traits of processing cabbage and compared these findings to those from a similar study of fresh market cabbage. Six cultivars of processing cabbage were planted in May and June-July of 1999 and 2000 at the OARDC Vegetable Crops Research Branch in Fremont, Ohio. Marketable yield for each crop was determined, and measurements were taken of head weight, diameter, density, and volume, and core length, base width, and volume on more than 450 individual heads. Head and core volume and head density were calculated from these direct measures. Year, planting date, and cultivar significantly affected the majority of head traits. May planting led to higher marketable yield and heavier heads with larger diameters than June-July planting. The most variable trait across cultivars was head volume, which was affected by planting date in all cultivars. Differences between processing and fresh market cabbage were found. Average head polar/equatorial diameter values were affected by planting date in the fresh market but not the processing study. In contrast, head density and core volume as a percent of head volume were affected by planting date in the processing but not the fresh market study.
Yi-Chen Chen, Wei-Chun Chang, San-Tai Wang, and Shu-I Lin
whether the tube-grafting method could be applied to cabbage. Second, we identified the best healing conditions for the grafted cabbage for future commercial production. Last, we determined the effects of grafting on cabbage head traits. Materials and
Matthew D. Kleinhenz
Declines in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) crop quality may result from delaying harvest to allow for greater total yield. An accurate, reliable, rapid and inexpensive method to estimate yield before harvest not requiring direct weight measurements would assist cabbage growers and handlers in harvest scheduling. Results from 3 years of study during which a tool to predict cabbage yield was developed and tested are reported here. The tool was developed using plots containing a total of 13 cabbage varieties (fresh market and processing types) planted in May to July 1999 and 2000 at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) Vegetable Crops Research Branch in Fremont, Ohio. Exhaustive measurement of marketable yield and traits of hundreds of individual heads taken from these plots revealed simple mathematical relationships among head number, size, density, and yield. The tool was tested by comparing marketable yield predicted using a formula based on these head trait relationships to direct measures of crop yield in three different studies: 1) a factorial of nine varieties and 2 planting dates completed in Fremont in 1999, 2000, and 2001, 2) a survey of 12 commercial cabbage fields in northwestern Ohio encompassing six varieties and various planting dates and fertility regimens, in 2001, and 3) a factorial of 32 varieties and 2 planting dates (10 May, 20 June) completed in Fremont in 2001. The R2 for predicted and actual marketable yield in commercial fields and experimental plots ranged from 0.72 to 0.97. Of 510 individual estimatesof marketable yield, 48% were within 10% of actual yield values. The average quotient of predicted divided by actual marketable yield for 510 estimates made for commercial and experimental samples in 1999-2001 was 0.975. Results from this study were applied to the development of a table of potential use to crop managers in obtaining preharvest estimates of cabbage crop marketable yield. The table and its underlying assumptions are easily adjusted for local conditions.
Mark W. Farnham
’ ( Table 1 ). The weight of typical heads produced by this line is often comparable to that of hybrids when grown in the same trials with heads cut to a 6-inch length usually weighing ≈170 to 200 g. Other head traits of USVL048 include a high dome shape
Mark W. Farnham
heads cut to a 16-cm length usually weighing ≈160 to 170 g ( Table 1 ). On average, this is ≈55% to 70% of the head weight for ‘Marathon’ or ‘Legacy’ grown in the same trials. Other head traits of USVL115-GL and USVL115-NG include a slight to moderate
Charles E. Barrett, Lincoln Zotarelli, Lucas G. Paranhos, Brian S. Taylor, Peter Dittmar, Clyde W. Fraisse, and John VanSickle
) was calculated from the derived head and core volumes. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX and REG procedures of SAS Version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). A two-way analysis of variance was performed for yield and head trait data. Means separation
Charles E. Barrett, Lincoln Zotarelli, Lucas G. Paranhos, Peter Dittmar, Clyde W. Fraisse, and John VanSickle
.D. Wszelaki, A. 2003 Yield and relationships among head traits in cabbage as influenced by planting date and cultivar. I. Fresh market HortScience 38 1349 1354 Lament, W.J. 1993 Plastic mulches for the production of vegetable crops HortTechnology 3 35 39
Zachary Stansell, Thomas Björkman, Sandra Branham, David Couillard, and Mark W. Farnham
constructing indices relative importance (RI) and relative importance subset (RI*). Table 3. Weights used to compute five different selection indices (linear combinations) of broccoli head traits including head extension (HE), plot uniformity (PU), head color