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Uttara C. Samarakoon, Keith A. Funnell, David J. Woolley and Edward R. Morgan

and, additionally, can have a long harvest window. Anecdotally, the variation has been observed among cultivars, and among plants of the same cultivar. This variation in harvest maturity makes it difficult to schedule harvest operations and target high

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Manasikan Thammawong, Daisuke Nei, Poritosh Roy, Nobutaka Nakamura, Takeo Shiina, Yuuichi Inoue, Hidenobu Hamachi and Shigeyuki Nonaka

difference in sugar content in different sections along the length of a bamboo shoot. However, comprehensive and accurate data on the sugar profiles in various bamboo shoots (four different sections along the length, different harvest maturity, and different

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Uttara C. Samarakoon, David J. Woolley, Ed R. Morgan and Keith A. Funnell

horticulturally relevant developmental endpoints such as shoot emergence or flower harvest maturity and, therefore, spread in duration to harvest maturity of the flowering shoots within a single plant. Such spread in duration of harvest maturity has previously

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Elena E. Lon Kan, Steven A. Sargent, Daniel J. Cantliffe, Adrian D. Berry and Nicole L. Shaw

less susceptible to developing CI symptoms during storage than immature fruit; ripe fruit are more resistant to moisture loss due to a well-developed cuticle. Fruit weight loss during storage was unaffected by harvest maturity or storage temperature

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Jinhe Bai, Kristi Barckley and John Manthey

Pear texture is similar to that of apple—firm and crispy—and is one of the potential alternatives to apple. However, at a crispy stage the taste is flat. Improving the taste of pears is considered the key to the success of pear salad. This study evaluated the effect of harvest maturity on the quality of pear salad. Fruit were harvested at commercial maturity or 1 month delayed. After 2 and 5 months (1 and 4 months for delayed harvested fruit) of storage at –1 °C, fruit were sliced (eight to 10 wedges per fruit), treated with an anti-browning dip, packaged in zip-lock bags (10 pieces per bag), and stored at 1 °C for up to 21 days. Delayed harvested fruit were larger in size (≈12.5% increase in weight), had lower flesh firmness (≈5 N decrease), lower titratable acidity content (≈20% decrease), and a lower phenolic content (≈45% decrease in pulp). There was no significant difference in soluble solids content. After 2 months of storage, ethylene production and respiration rate were initially lower in delayed harvested fruit in either the intact fruit or cut slices, but tended to similar after 7 days in storage. Sensory evaluation results show that about 80% of the panel preferred delayed-harvested fruit over commercial harvest, especially in terms of visual quality (71% to 92%), sweetness (75% to 93%), taste (69% to 92%), texture of skin (61% to 92%), texture of flesh (53% to 92%), and overall quality (73% to 92%) during 21 days of storage at 1 °C. After 5 months of storage, cutting surface was dry-looking in delayed harvested fruit. However, sensory evaluation showed panels still preferred the delayed-harvested fruit. The results indicate that salad quality of pears can be improved by delaying harvest.

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F R Harker, C B Watkins, B A Cregoe, P L Brookfield and W J Bramlage

The apple growing districts of New Zealand are spread across a wide range of latitudes. Differences in growing conditions associated with these various districts may influence the way fruit mature on the tree. In this study, the relationships between background colour and physiological maturity of Royal Gala apples have been compared in four major production areas. Royal Gala apples were strip picked from trees in three orchards during the commercial harvest period Hawkes Bay, Canterbury, Nelson and Otago. The maturity of these fruit was assessed, and fruit stored at 0°C for 12 weeks. Following removal from “storage, the quality of the fruit was assessed paying particular attention to -greasiness. Results from this trial indicate that the relationship between background colour and fruit maturity is not consistent. Indeed, the maturity of apples of a particular background colour may differ according to district and harvest date. Greasiness of fruit was related to harvest maturity in Hawkes Bay. However, fruit from Canterbury and Otago became severely greasy even when harvested at early maturities.

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Jeanine M. Davis and Randolph G. Gardner

Eight staked, determinate tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars were harvested when green (before breaker stage) or when pink (breaker stage and riper) in two replicated field studies. In general, total yield and average fruit size were reduced when fruit were harvested at the green stage. Harvest maturity had only a small effect on occurrence of most fruit defects, except fruit cracking, which was more severe for pink than for green fruit in the early season experiment. Although total yields for pink harvested fruit were higher than for green harvested fruit in the early season study, the high incidence of fruit crack in pink fruit resulted in similar yields of U.S. combination grade (U.S. no. 1 and U.S. no. 2) fruit for both treatments. Because the largest fruit often bring a premium price, harvesting fruit when pink probably will result in a higher price per kilogram than harvesting fruit when green. Fruit harvested green, however, are generally firmer, more crack resistant, and require fewer harvests than fruit harvested pink.

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Pablo Rodriguez, Juan Camilo Henao, Guillermo Correa and Ana Aristizabal

). Fruit exported from Colombia to Europe are stored at least 14 d under cold conditions (5 to 7 °C). Therefore, due to the aforementioned reasons, the establishment of an adequate harvest maturity index has significant economic importance ( Bayram et al

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Abbie J. Fox, David Del Pozo-Insfran, Joon Hee Lee, Steven A. Sargent and Stephen T. Talcott

Greenhouse-grown bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. `Robusta') were harvested at five stages of maturation (10% red to full red) in early winter 2002 (Expt. 1) and at two stages (10% red and full red) in early Spring 2002 (Expt. 2). The fruit were subsequently stored at 20 °C in a continuous-flow chamber consisting of either 100 μL·L–1 ethylene (balance air) or air-only (control) at 90% relative humidity (RH). Individual fruit were removed from the chambers upon reaching full red color, and stored at –30 °C until physicochemical analyses were conducted. Harvest maturity, and ethylene exposure had no appreciable effect on pulp soluble solids content, total titratable acidity or pH. Exposure to ethylene hastened ripening time compared to the air control but was independent of fruit maturity at harvest. Fruit exposed to ethylene reached full-red color 6.4 days (Expt. 1) and 4 days (Expt. 2) earlier than air-only fruit, respectively. There were no significant phytochemical and antioxidant differences noted for total carotenoids, total ascorbic acid, and soluble phenolics at various maturity stages due to ethylene exposure. Appreciable differences were observed between the two experiments for phytochemicals and antioxidants, as bell peppers from the latter experiment contained at least twice the concentrations of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity as those from the first experiment. Differences in these parameters between experiments were attributed to environmental factors such as average temperature, day length, and light intensity. Ethylene was demonstrated to be an effective postharvest treatment for accelerating color change in this bell pepper cultivar, permitting earlier harvest without altering phytochemical synthesis rates.

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Nazir A. Mir, Erin Curell, Najma Khan, Melissa Whitaker and Randolph M. Beaudry

Fruit of `Redchief Delicious' apple [Malus sylvestris (L) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] were harvested 1 week before the climacteric (harvest 1), at the onset of the climacteric (harvest 2), and 1 week after the onset of the climacteric (harvest 3). Fruit were stored at 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 °C and were treated with 0.7 μL·L-1 1-MCP on a once-per-week, once-per-2-week, once-per-month, and once-per-year basis or were left nontreated. The initial 1-MCP treatment was at 20 °C and subsequent applications were at storage temperatures. The compound slowed softening at all temperatures relative to nontreated fruit, however as temperature decreased, the benefits of 1-MCP application became less pronounced. Effectiveness of 1-MCP declined slightly as harvest maturity increased. Efficacy of 1-MCP treatment increased with greater frequency of application at 5, 10, 15, and 20 °C, but not at 0 °C. Fruit stored without refrigeration (20 °C) for more than 100 days did not soften significantly when treated once per week with 1-MCP. However, decay was a significant problem for treated and nontreated fruit stored at temperatures >5 °C; 1-MCP application reduced, but did not prevent decay. Rate of decline in titratable acidity increased with storage temperature and 1-MCP had no significant effect on retarding the decline in acid content. Minimal (Fo) and maximal (Fm) chlorophyll fluorescence was altered markedly by 1-MCP application, but the ratio of (Fm-Fo)/Fm was only slightly affected. The most effective 1-MCP treatment frequency was once per week and, at all elevated temperatures (5, 10, 15, and 20 °C), slowed loss of firmness to a greater extent than refrigeration (0 °C) alone. Application of 1-MCP resulted in greater retention of firmness than controlled atmosphere (CA) with O2 and CO2 at 1.5 kPa and 3 kPa, respectively. Data suggest that 1-MCP application, has the potential to reduce reliance on refrigeration and CA storage for maintaining firmness of `Redchief Delicious' apple, especially for relatively short storage durations (<50 days) when fruit are harvested within a week of the ethylene climacteric. Chemical name used: 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP).