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Annette Wszelaki and Matthew D. Kleinhenz

This is the second of two related reports dealing with the effects of cultivar × environment interactions on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata Group) crop traits. This study examined planting date and cultivar effects on physical head traits of processing cabbage and compared these findings to those from a similar study of fresh market cabbage. Six cultivars of processing cabbage were planted in May and June-July of 1999 and 2000 at the OARDC Vegetable Crops Research Branch in Fremont, Ohio. Marketable yield for each crop was determined, and measurements were taken of head weight, diameter, density, and volume, and core length, base width, and volume on more than 450 individual heads. Head and core volume and head density were calculated from these direct measures. Year, planting date, and cultivar significantly affected the majority of head traits. May planting led to higher marketable yield and heavier heads with larger diameters than June-July planting. The most variable trait across cultivars was head volume, which was affected by planting date in all cultivars. Differences between processing and fresh market cabbage were found. Average head polar/equatorial diameter values were affected by planting date in the fresh market but not the processing study. In contrast, head density and core volume as a percent of head volume were affected by planting date in the processing but not the fresh market study.

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Manoj G. Kulkarni, Glendon D. Ascough, and Johannes Van Staden

Smoke shows promising results in stimulating germination and vigor. The biologically active butenolide compound isolated from smoke has potential to become a valuable tool in horticulture. ‘Heinz-1370’ tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings showed a positive response to smoke and were therefore tested with smoke-water and butenolide for growth, yield, and nutritional composition. Smoke-water (1:500, by volume) treatment showed the maximum height, number of leaves, and stem thickness from 57 to 78 days after sowing. The percentage of plants with fruit from 85 to 95 days after sowing was much higher with the application of smoke-water and butenolide solution than in the control. The total number of marketable fruit was significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) for smoke-water–treated (1:500, by volume) tomato plants (168) than for the control (124). Butenolide and the lower concentration of smoke-water (1:2000, by volume) yielded more fruit, but was not significantly (P ≥ 0.05) different from the control. In spite of achieving a greater number of fruit, smoke treatments did not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) change the size, weight, and nutritional composition (ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene, and total soluble solids) of fruit. The harvest indices of smoke-water– and butenolide-treated plants significantly improved (P ≤ 0.05), suggesting the possible use of smoke technology for tomato cultivation.

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Christopher B. Watkins, Mustafa Erkan, Jacqueline F. Nock, Kevin A. Iungerman, Randolph M. Beaudry, and Renae E. Moran

`Honeycrisp' is a new apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] cultivar that has been planted extensively in North America, but the storage disorders soggy breakdown and soft scald have resulted in major fruit losses. The effects of harvest date and storage temperature on fruit quality and susceptibility of fruit to these disorders have been investigated in Michigan, New York, and Maine. Internal ethylene concentrations were variable over a wide range of harvest dates, and a rapid increase in autocatalytic ethylene production was not always apparent. The starch pattern index, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and firmness also appear to have limited use as harvest indices. Development of soggy breakdown and soft scald is associated with later harvest dates and storage of fruit at temperatures of 0 to 0.5 °C compared with higher storage temperatures. It is recommended that `Honeycrisp' be stored at 3 °C, although storage disorders still can occur at this temperature if fruit are harvested late. In addition, greasiness development may be worse at higher storage temperatures.

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C.L. Mackowiak, R.M. Wheeler, G.W. Stutte, and N.C. Yorio

As part of NASA's effort with bioregenerative life support systems, the growth of candidate crops is being investigated in controlled environments. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was selected for the high oil and protein content of its seed. Peanut cvs. Pronto and Early Bunch were grown from seed, using recirculating nutrient film technique (NFT) in 6-cm-deep, trapazoidal culture trays. The trays were fitted with slotted covers, which allowed developing pegs to reach the root zone. Use of a separate moss-filled pegging compartment above the root zone (tray within a tray) had little effect on seed yield, but resulted in a 60% increase in the nitric acid requirements for pH control. Yields from both cultivars were equivalent to field values on an area basis; however, harvest indices were lower than field values due to the luxuriant canopy growth under controlled environment conditions. Proximate analysis of seeds was similar to field values, with the exception of fat, which was ≈15% lower, and ash, which was ≈30% greater under controlled environment conditions, regardless of cultivar.

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within different age groups. Results will help in target marketing of roses. Physical Parameters Useful as Avocado Harvest Indices ‘Hass’ avocado fruit quality is highly associated with its harvest time. Sensory properties, shelf life, and cold chain

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Christopher B. Watkins and Jacqueline F. Nock

indices and mineral concentrations with disorder incidences and volatile concentrations. Results Expt. 1. The harvest indices of fruit were assessed within 2 d after (Orchards 1 to 3) or on the day (Orchards 4 to 6) of picking. The IECs of fruit from

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C.B. Watkins and F.W. Liu

evaluation room at 20 °C. After 1 d, the flesh firmness of 10 fruit was assessed as described previously, and the remaining fruit were assessed for presence or absence of external and internal disorders after a further 6 d at 20 °C. Harvest indices and

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Pablo Rodriguez, Juan Camilo Henao, Guillermo Correa, and Ana Aristizabal

% confidence level. ‘Hass’ avocado harvest indices in Antioquia: For each of the three regions in the Department of Antioquia, we applied a multiple linear regression model by steps forward with a 95% confidence level (see Eq. [5] ). The DM was used as the Y

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Chase Jones-Baumgardt, David Llewellyn, Qinglu Ying, and Youbin Zheng

) and dependent (i.e., production and harvest indices) values as continuous variables. The relationships between LI and yield (FW or DW) were determined using the asymptotic model y = a + b e (cx) ( Delgado et al., 1993 ), where y, x, a, and e

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Richard P. Marini, Tara Auxt Baugher, Megan Muehlbauer, Sherif Sherif, Robert Crassweller, and James R. Schupp

conditioned and unconditioned fruit in relation to mineral contents and harvest indices. For unconditioned fruit sampled at the start of commercial harvest, bitter pit incidence was least severe for fruit with high internal ethylene concentration, low starch