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Austin L. Grimshaw, Yuanshuo Qu, William A. Meyer, Eric Watkins and Stacy A. Bonos

pesticides. Three of the fine fescue species most widely used for turfgrass areas are strong creeping red fescue ( F. rubra L. subsp. rubra ), Chewing’s fescue [ F. rubra L. subsp. fallax (Thuill.) Nyman], and hard fescue ( F. brevipilia Tracey). Strong

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M. Ali Harivandi, William L. Hagan, M. Zak Mousli and Lin Wu

Stand establishment of direct-seeded hard fescue (Festuca longifolia) is slow. Sodding could speed establishment in landscape plantings. This study looked at the effects of two sod thicknesses and different rates of nitrogen fertilization before and after sodding, on stand establishment and overall turf quality. Evaluations 2, 4 and 8 weeks after sodding assessed rooting and overall turf quality. Thicker sod showed better rooting 4 weeks after planting; after 8 weeks, rooting of both thicknesses was similar. Nitrogen fertilization before or after sodding did not affect rooting. More nitrogen led to better overall turf quality up to 4 weeks after planting; however, this quality difference disappeared 8 weeks after sodding.

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Florence A. Becot, Terence L. Bradshaw and David S. Conner

Hard cider production has increased dramatically in the United States in recent years with an annualized growth rate of 50% between 2009 and 2014 and revenues totaling $292.5 million in 2014 ( Petrillo, 2014 ). The growth of the industry has been

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Gregory Peck, Megan McGuire, Thomas Boudreau IV and Amanda Stewart

Hard cider is an alcoholic beverage produced from fermented apple juice or apple juice concentrate. Domestic cider consumption has increased more than 850% in the last 5 years and there are now over 550 cider producers in the United States ( TTB

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Brianna L. Ewing and Barbara A. Rasco

In the United States, both fresh and fermented apple juice may be called “apple cider,” but “cider” here refers to the alcoholic, fermented “hard” cider product. Food safety considerations regarding apple juice or “sweet cider,” the nonalcoholic

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Ian G. Lane, James Wolfin, Eric Watkins and Marla Spivak

forage plant for bees; that is, a flower that provides floral nectar or pollen for bee pollinators. Hard fescue ( Festuca brevipila ) was chosen as the companion turf species for its slow growth habit and low water and fertilizer input needs along with

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D.W. Stanley

Hard-to-cook and hard-shell are two textural defects associated with storage of legumes, as typified by the common bean. These defects can lead to failure to germinate, extended cooking times, reduced nutritional value, and economic loss throughout the food chain. Although these losses are predominate in tropical climates, beans stored in temperate areas also will harden eventually, depending on temperature and humidity. Hardened beans also often darken, causing further quality losses. Structurally, hard-shell is associated with the seedcoat and failure of water absorption, while hard-to-cook affects the cotyledons, rendering the cells unable to separate during cooking. Hardening of seedcoats during storage has been reported, and a mechanism based on oxidation and polymerization of phenolic compounds is suspected as being responsible, but few details of the hard-shell defect are known. The traditional theory used to explain the hard-to-cook defect is based on enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate, rendering it unable to chelate divalent cations that then migrate to the middle lamella and participate in crosslinking reactions with demethylated pectins. More recent evidence points to a multiple mechanism of bean hardening, with metabolism of phenolic compounds and membrane deterioration also involved. Control of bean hardening has been attempted at all levels of bean production, processing, and consumption. At present, control of storage conditions, manipulation of agronomic factors, and improved cooking techniques seem to be the best strategies to reduce bean hardening.

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Jinyu Wang, Bo Yuan, Yi Xu and Bingru Huang

variations for heat tolerance, although amino acids are the constituents of proteins and their content is closely related to protein metabolism. The fine fescue family is comprised of several species and subspecies, including hard fescue, sheep fescue

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Joseph C. Goffreda

The stony hard gene in peach is a recessive gene which increases fruit firmness and shelf-life. Five progenies segregating for the stony hard trait were scored for several ripening-related characteristics. Fruit from stony hard segregants produced little or no ethylene, had lower respiration rates, and tended to ripen later than `normal' fruit. Stony hard fruit also had a lower percentage red overcolor in three of the five progenies. Stony hard fruit, harvested when firm-ripe, maintained their firmness after five days storage at 20°C. Firmness of stony hard fruit decreased significantly if the fruit were sprayed with ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) at 250 ppm prior to storage. Fruit firmness of `normal' freestone or clingstone varieties was not significantly affected by the application of ethephon. The conversion of ethylene precursors to ethylene in stony hard fruit will also be discussed.

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Rolston St. Hilaire and William R. Graves

Differences in foliar morphology and anatomy of hard maples (Acer saccharum Marsh. and Acer nigrum Michx. f.) may explain contrasting responses to moisture stress of these species. We conducted a 2-year study to examine leaf morphology and anatomy of populations of hard maples indigenous near the 43°N latitude from 94°W longitude in Iowa to the 71°W longitude in Maine. Leaves were collected from shoots exposed to direct solar radiation on multiple trees at each of 24 sites in 1995, and at 36 sites in 1996. Samples collected in 1995 showed stomate frequency on the abaxial leaf surface ranged from 380 to 760 stomata/mm2. Mean guard cell pair width and length were 16 and 17 μm, respectively. Stomate frequency related quadratically to longitude, was greatest for leaves from Iowa, and was negatively correlated with mean annual precipitation of the sample site. Leaf thickness did not vary with longitude and averaged 96 μm. Palisade thickness showed a greater correlation than mesophyll thickness to total leaf thickness. Mesophyll thickness was more highly correlated than palisade thickness to specific leaf mass, which did not vary with longitude and averaged 5.2 mg·cm–2. Analysis of leaves collected over both years showed trichome frequency and lamina area were related quadratically to longitude; the largest and most pubescent laminae were from westerly sites. These studies are being coordinated with greenhouse experiments on responses of seedlings from selected populations to moisture deficits.